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 #   Notes   Linked to 
1 "Crosslands" Cameron, Donald (I3931)
 
2 "Crosslands" Cameron, Mary (I3932)
 
3 "Doocie" is assumed to be a nickname for Caroline Ada - see family note for her parents. Note that if this information is correct she was brought up by the Cameron family after the death of her mother when she was perhaps only one year old. Royes, Caroline Ada (I3555)
 
4 "H" could be Hutchinson or Hougham?
"George H" is not listed in NSW Registry of Births Historical Index - where did the information come from?
Did he accompany family when they emigrated back to Jersey, UK? Not in 1851 Census with family at St Helier - would have been 12.
Did he die at birth or as a child?
Is the entry incorrect? 
Bell, George Hougham (I3477)
 
5 "James" based on the fact that he has a son James jr Snoddy, James (I2091)
 
6 "Larne Harbour" Clements, Elizabeth Gamble (I160)
 
7 "Larne Harbour" Logan, Samuel (I617)
 
8 "late of Lane Cove" - SMH Tulloch, Ronald Laurence (I4101)
 
9 "Maude" is on the birth registration - she seems to have used "Maud" otherwise Royes, Eleanor Maude (I915)
 
10 "Melrose Farm" McArthur, Malcolm Hugh (I2176)
 
11 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Smith, L.V. (I1157)
 
12 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Royes, M.C. (I1002)
 
13 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Royes, G.V. (I930)
 
14 "Olive Royes in my family tree is the name on the birth certificate of my father (Known all his life as Oliver Kelly). We believe that his father filled out the birth certificate and named him after his mother (Annie Olive)." - Narda Kelly Royes Kelly, Oliver Milton (I1648)
 
15 "Prospect House" Royes, Emily (I2260)
 
16 "Richard I"  Encyclopædia Britannica  from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
[Accessed September 30, 2003]:
born c. 932 died 996
byname Richard The Fearless,  French Richard Sans Peur
duke of Normandy (942–996), son of William I Longsword.
Louis IV of France took the boy-duke into his protective custody, apparently intent upon reuniting Normandy to the crown's domains; but in 945 Louis was captured by the Normans, and Richard was returned to his people. Richard withstood further Carolingian attempts to subdue his duchy and, in 987, was instrumental in securing the French crown for his brother-in-law, the Robertian Hugh Capet. 
Richard I Duke of Normandy (I2778)
 
17 "Richard III"  Encyclopædia Britannica  from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
[Accessed September 30, 2003]:

died, Feb. 3, 1027
duke of Normandy (1026–27, or 1027), son of Richard II the Good. He was succeeding in quelling the revolt of his brother, Robert, when he died opportunely, perhaps of poison, making way for his brother's succession as Robert I. 
Richard III Duke of Normandy (I2759)
 
18 "Shackelwell" Tyssen, Samuel (I1255)
 
19 "St. Neot's, co. Huntingdon" FitzGilbert, Richard Earl of Clare (I3549)
 
20 "Stars Farm" McLennan, Oswald Hubert (I4130)
 
21 "The Glen" Bailey, John (I1871)
 
22 "The Parsonage" Bradley Jones, Margaret (I1866)
 
23 "The young couple's married life was of short duration, for Susannah and her little daughter soon followed each other to the grave." Matthews, Susannah (I1596)
 
24 'Ardroy' at Koloona, 34 km NW of Inverell Cameron, Edward (I3970)
 
25 'Breelong' Cameron, Elizabeth (I3958)
 
26 'Breelong' Cameron, William (I3956)
 
27 'Breelong' Cameron, Donald (I3954)
 
28 'Breelong' Cameron, Elizabeth (I3958)
 
29 'Breelong' Cameron, Flora (I3969)
 
30 'Edina' Cameron, Edward (I3970)
 
31 'Noremac' - 'Pembroke' may have been the same address Cameron, Flora (I3969)
 
32 'Pembroke', Brown Street - with her mother Cameron, Flora (I3969)
 
33 (Hutton Hall) - 1861 census Geggle, Margaret (I1299)
 
34 ------------------------------
Husband: ~*Eystein Glumra "the Noisy" Ivarsson
Born: 810 at: Maer,Norway 47-37,647,233
Married: at:
Died: at:
Father:~*Ivar Halfdansson "King" of Sweden
Mother:~*daughter of Eyestien
Other Spouses:
NOTES
------------------------------
Wife: ~*Ascrida Ragnvaldsdottir
Born: 812 at: Maer, Norway 47-37,647,234
Died: at:
Father:~*Ragnvald Olafsson "King" of Westfold
Mother:~*Tora Sigurdsdottir
Other Spouses:
------------------------------
CHILDREN
Name: Sigurd I "Powerful" Eysteinsson "Earl" of Orkney
Born: at:
Married: at:
Died: at:
Spouses:
------------------------------
Name: Swanhilda Eysteinsdottir
Born: at:
Married: at:
Died: at:
Spouses:
------------------------------
Name: ~*Rognvald Eyenstein "the Wise" "Jarl" of Maerr
Born: 820 at: Maer, Norway 46-18,823,617
Married: at:
Died: 890 at: Maer, Norway
Spouses: ~*Ragnhild Hrolfsdottir ~*Groa
------------------------------ 
Ivarsson, Eystein Earl of Hedemarken (I2666)
 
35 -1856 running a pub http://members3.boardhost.com/aucklands/msg/33.html Bromley, James Hindsley (I2283)
 
36 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, A. (I2462)
 
37 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, R.C. (I4162)
 
38 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, B.P. (I3627)
 
39 1 daughter Thorpe, Edwin Charles (I3953)
 
40 1. MARRIED Thomas Olive in 1881. Thomas died in 1882. They had one child.

2. MARRIED William Thomas Davy 20 Mar 1884 in Townsville, QLD. [There were 6 children from this marriage.]

3. MARRIAGE. in The Northern Miner (Charters Towers)
BLOUNT-DAVY. On Monday, 17th February, [1896] at the R.C. Church, Ravenswood, by the Rev. Father Weir, Walter Henry Blount, of Clifton, Gloucester, England, to Rose, relict [widow] of the late William Davy, of Ravenswood.

4. OBITUARY in Townsville Daily Bulletin 13 Nov 1950
In the early hours of Sunday morning the death occurred of Mrs. Rose Davy at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. H. Stewart, at No. 1 Second Street. Railway Estate. In her 90th year. Mrs. Davy who was born in Ireland in 1860 sailed for Australia in the s.s. Scottish Knight in the year 1879. She arrived in Townsville in the same vear and went to settle in Ravenswood where she married William Thomas Davy, manager of the Ravenswood Gold Mining Company. Mrs. Davy is survived bv fivve of her seven children, four daughters and one son, Mesdames H. Stewart (Townsville), W. Austin (Redlynch, Cairns), V. Dawes (Sydney), N. Somerset (Melbourne) and Mr. J. Davy (CherJeville). Mrs. Davy also is survived by 23 grand children and 31 great-grand-children.
 
Smith, Rose (I6399)
 
41 10 children

Elizabeth Burgess was born as one of the Crossley family, several members of which married into the Burgess family. As David's wife she bore ten children. Elizabeth is always known as wearing an enormous blue Bonnet with white spots on it. Heer home was made of split slab walls and stringy bark pole rafters. The kitchen was separated from the main house, as was the safe custom of the time. Initially the floor was packed earth, which was later replaced with floor boards. The house and slabs were always painted with whitewash. The home was the nearest in style to the old pioneer houses that Fred Ling could recall seeing. Elizabeth also helped in the fields, often with a baby on her hip. She was recognized for her prowess as a horsewoman (sidesaddle only for women), and when her children were sick, she would ride over the mountain with them to Wollombi to secure treatment from Dr, Bapty. OBITUARY The Funeral of the late Mrs D Burgess, which left her resideence at Congewai, on August 27, for the Church of England portion of the Ellalong Cemetery, was very largely attended. Rev. Francis performed the last sad rites. her four grandsons --- Ray and Stan Matthews, Keith and Eric Hollingshed acted as pall bearers.

NOTES FROM THE CONGEWAI BOOK Narrated by Joyce Kime nee Burgess to her daughter Pat " Crossleys were related to the Burgess's, my grandmother was a Crossley. She had a stove and open fireplace in the kitchen. The 'loo' was impeccably clean a and contained a wonderful sacking pouch (about 2and a half feet wide and 2 feet deep) full of books and magazines. A wonderful read prior to using as toilet paper. Grandma always wore the gingham bonnets and long dresses favoured by the women of her era. 
Crossley, Elizabeth Ann (I5882)
 
42 10 children Crossley, Emily (I5880)
 
43 10 children 1869-87 Thompson, Ann (I3693)
 
44 10 children 1869-87 Bailey, Francis (I2011)
 
45 105 Taylor St Thorpe, Edwin Charles (I3953)
 
46 105 Taylor St Cameron, Catherine (I3952)
 
47 11 children born 1860-77 Preston, Margaret (I5889)
 
48 11 children born 1860-77 Bailey, George (I2029)
 
49 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, M.M. (I842)
 
50 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, M.W. (I1265)
 
51 1180 he witnessed a grant between Hugh de Dover and the Abbotts and monks of St Berton, St Omar, France, the lands being in Kent, England. d' Avranches, William Lord of Folkestone (I2183)
 
52 11km from Aberdeen Handebo, Elizabeth (I3940)
 
53 12 children Preston, Anne (I1884)
 
54 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Bloomfield, B.C. (I2651)
 
55 1246 Count of Provence, Duke of Anjou
1265 King of Naples
1266 King od Sicily 
d' Anjou, Charles I (I3640)
 
56 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, E.S. (I4775)
 
57 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Cumming, L.J. (I1385)
 
58 13 children Perkins, Eleanor (I1874)
 
59 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Healey, H.J. (I433)
 
60 1487 commanded a detachment of HENRY VII's troops in victory of over Lambert Simnel and remnants of the Yorkist party.
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
He was King's Counsel (K.C.).
In 1487 Speaker of the House of Commons.
In 1495 Serjeant-at-law.
In 1500 Justice of Chester.
In 1503 knighted 18 February 
Mordaunt, Sir John (I3680)
 
61 1487 commanded a detachment of HENRY VII's troops in victory of over Lambert Simnel and remnants of the Yorkist party.
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
He was King's Counsel (K.C.).
In 1487 Speaker of the House of Commons.
In 1495 Serjeant-at-law.
In 1500 Justice of Chester.
In 1503 knighted 18 February 
Mordaunt, Sir John (I3680)
 
62 15th Regiment Rastall-Dickenson, Captain Henry Bacon Fector (I1384)
 
63 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Green, L.M. (I351)
 
64 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Arnott, W.C. (I5203)
 
65 1822 Jan - Signatory to address from prisoners in Hyde Park Barracks expressing concern at the charges proceeding against Major Druitt and the hope that his innocence would be proved (Fiche 3048; 4/1830 No.183)
1822 Mar 4 - On Rose's road party; on list of men selected for clearing Mr Marsden's estate (Reel 6022; 4/7014 p.107)
1822 Dec 14 - Servant of Archibald Bell (Junior). Permitted to proceed with sheep over the Blue Mountains to Bathurst (Reel 6010; 4/3507 p.82) 
Preston, Joseph (I1821)
 
66 1841 and 1851 census Weatherburn, Margaret (I5861)
 
67 1841 and 1851 census Weatherburn, Esther (I5860)
 
68 1841 census Weatherburn, Christian (I4789)
 
69 1841 census Edminson, Margaret (I1916)
 
70 1841 census Weatherburn, James (I1912)
 
71 1861 census “Russia British Subject” Machin, Frank (I4821)
 
72 1861 Census: Edward A Dix, grandson of Isabella, born Kiev, Russia abt 1847, age 14, scholar living with Isabella Hookham, Isabella (I1369)
 
73 1861 Census: Edward A Dix, grandson of Isabella, born Kiev, Russia abt 1847, age 14, scholar. He does not seem to appear in subsequent English records so did he return to Russia after his schooling? Machin, Nathaniel (I4820)
 
74 1871 Census Campbell, Florence (I1735)
 
75 1871 census Turner Bravo, Ellen (I1732)
 
76 1871 Census: A John A Dix age 59, born London (c 1812), cotton trader, is married to Sara A Dix age 49, born Essex, living at 5 Glatter? Rd, St Pancras
Deaths: A John Dix b abt 1809 died 21 Feb 1831, Westminster and another 18 Jul 1818, City of London
1841 Census: John Dix, age 30, born Middlesex [London] (c 1811), carpenter, living at King St, Finsbury (parish St Luke) 
Dix, John (I4217)
 
77 1878 Moved to Ravenswood. Set up carrying business with bullocks and horses.
1893 Moved to Georgetown by bullock dray with their seven children.
before 1901 Moved to Mareeba where the business mostly ran between Mareeba and Herberton. 
Royes, Charles Mordaunt (I887)
 
78 1900 A William Henry Carmichael born in Larne
1902 A William Henry Carmichael born in Larne
1910 A William Shaw Carmichael born in Larne
1902 A William Carmichael died in Belfast
1908 A William Henry Carmichael died in Larne 
Carmichael, William (I136)
 
79 1901 (31 March) Census: Residents of a house 9 in Harbour Road (Larne, Antrim)
SurnameForenameAgeSexRelation
to head
Religion
ClementsJames32MaleHeadPresbyterian
ClementsElizabeth30FemaleWifePresbyterian
ClementsIsabelle6FemaleDaughterPresbyterian
ClementsElizabeth5FemaleDaughterPresbyterian
ClementsHoustin2MaleSonPresbyterian
ClementsMaggie2moFemaleDaughterPresbyterian
 
Family F2058
 
80 1901 Census: Residents of a house 2 in Curran and Drumalis (Larne, Antrim)
SurnameForenameAgeSexRelation to headReligion
ClementsMary16FemaleDaughterPresbyterian
ClementsHuston60Male HeadPresbyterian
ClementsHuston20Male SonPresbyterian
ClementsAgnes52FemaleWifePresbyterian
 
Family F51
 
81 1903 Australian Electoral Roll at Mount Garnet, has Edmona/Edmons, domestic duties. Is Edmona a misreading for Ellenor? Robinson, Thomas Joseph (I794)
 
82 1911 Census Magee, Annie (I5231)
 
83 1922-07-22 - NORTHERN QUEENSLAND. - SUCCESSFUL SETTLER'S OPINION.

BRISBANE, Friday.—Mr. J. Weatherburn, who 12 years ago relinquished his calling as a coal miner at Newcastle and sought his fortunes on the land in Queensland, was a visitor to the "Department of Agriculture" today. He said the assertion that North Queensland was not a fit place for white people to live in was far from being the truth. He went to Peeramon, on the Atherton scrub plateau, in 1910 and took up a scrub selection of 80 acres. He had little knowledge of agriculture and but little Capital, but he worked with such good effect that, assisted by his wife. in but a comparatively short while he was well on the road to success, and finally, four years ago, he was in a position to lease his farm and live privately. Mr. Weatherburn said that others in the district had done even better than he, but they had more capital to start with. Mr. Weatherburn is now proceeding to Newcastle, where he may enter into business.

1923 - Joe & Family went back and had an Orchard at Dora Creek, NSW

*6.12.1923 The Gosford Times and Wyong District Advocate - Dora Creek.

HOTEL APPLICATION REFUSED. The Newcastle Licensing Court recently dealt with an application by Joseph Weatherburn for a publican's license for premises proposed to be erected at Dora Creek. Among the objectors who gave evidence was Rev. F. A. Woodger, Church of England Minister, who said that he had been Rector of Bora Creek since September, 1920. He had not resided in Dora Creek earlier because he could not get a house. He had been in the immediate vicinity of Dora Creek for almost six years. He prepared a list of residents of the area within one mile of the site of the proposed hotel. On January 1, 1919, there were 260 adults in the area, and 175 children, making a total population of 435. In 1923 the total population was 378, and the adult population 209. The Court's finding was: On the evidence before it, the Licensing Court finds that it has not been proved to its satisfaction that there has been a large increase of population within the meaning of section 6, clause A of the Local Government Act, 1919, in the area within a radius of one mile from the site of the proposed premises, since January 1, 1919. The Court considers that, having so found, it cannot recommend the Governor to grant the petition, and it is, therefore, useless taking further evidence. It will recommend the Governor to refuse the petition. 
Weatherburn, Joseph (I1296)
 
84 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Wood, A.J. (I5496)
 
85 1:00 am Royes, Mordaunt Herbert (I1006)
 
86 1st Larne Presbyterian, Inver parish
Rev. H W Molyneaux officiating
Groom's age 24 single, bride's age 21 single
Witnesses: Alexander Kirkpatrick (for husband) and John Russel (for wife, Samuel's brother)
Husband occupation: Tailor
Groom's father: James Russel
Bride's Father: James Whiteford, occupation Farmer
Note Russel (one-L) spelling throughout. 
Family F14
 
87 1st Presbyterian
by Rev. J.G. Donaghy
husband witness Henry McFerran
wife's witness Margaret Russell 
Family F2498
 
88 1st Presbyterian
Rev J Meek officiating
husband witness Hugh McDerran,
wife witness Margaret (Maggie) Russell (sister)
Husband Father Occupation given as Station Master
Both mothers' names blank 
Family F10
 
89 1st Presbyterian
Witnesses Samuel Russell Roy, Mary McAlpin
Rev Samuel Edgar Stewart officiated 
Family F528
 
90 2 children:
1) Frances Ann born 13 March 1843, Mcdonald River, married 1863 to George Sternbeck;
2) Thomas Johnson born 1 December 1844, married 22 March 1876 to Luvenah Amelia Green, he died 29 June 1912 at Paynes Crossing. 
Bailey, Elizabeth (I2024)
 
91 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Tape, S. (I1413)
 
92 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Welman, D. (I5586)
 
93 23 Jan 1838 arrived Sydney on the Bencoolen with sister Emily.
Lived Ben Galla, Muswellbrook, New South Wales; The Hermitage, The Oaks, New South Wales
New South Wales Pioneer index Death recorded at Picton Reg No 7442 
Royes, Maria (I2261)
 
94 26 km E of Armidale McLennan, Annie (Nance) (I3960)
 
95 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Russell, C. (I1085)
 
96 29265 N. Greenfield, Apt 414 Roberts, Nellie (I4251)
 
97 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Cassin, L. (I1933)
 
98 2nd Presbyterian (Gardenmore)
Samuel living at Lodge Rd, Larne, occupation labourer, age 22, Presbyterian, bachelor, father Robert Logan, labourer, witness James Clements
Elizabeth living at Drumalis, Larne, age 18, Presbyterian, spinster, father Houston Clements, labourer, witness Agnes Gurnan
By Rev J McGranahan 
Family F50
 
99 2nd Presbyterian (Gardenmore)
Witnessed Mary Logan & John Logan, Minister D H Hanson 
Family F5
 
100 3 children Family F4486
 
101 3 children Family F4487
 
102 3 children Irene, Isobelle, Tommy Family F4475
 
103 3 sons, 1 daughter Cameron, Catherine (I3952)
 
104 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Cameron, H.C.R. (I5940)
 
105 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Vogler, C.P. (I2246)
 
106 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, C.J. (I1723)
 
107 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, F.J. (I2652)
 
108 31 Piano Tce Espie, Richard (I265)
 
109 31 Piano Tce Russell, Harriet (I1090)
 
110 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Royes, F.D. (I924)
 
111 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Green, L.M. (I351)
 
112 3rd earl de Corbeil, Earl Mauger (I2829)
 
113 4 children Crossley, Thomas (I1991)
 
114 45 Alexander St - certificate with Deidre Hogan Brennan Hamill, Sarah Anne (I4628)
 
115 48 Barney St Cameron, John (I3944)
 
116 4th Duke of Normandy (0996-1026)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II,_Duke_of_Normandy

"Richard II"  Encyclopædia Britannica  from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
[Accessed September 30, 2003] :

by name Richard The Good, French Richard Le Bon  duke of Normandy (996–1026/27), son of Richard I the Fearless. He held his own against a peasant insurrection, helped Robert II of France against the duchy of Burgundy, and repelled an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula that was led by the Anglo-Saxon king Ethelred II the Unready. He also pursued a reform of the Norman monasteries. 
Richard II Duke of Normandy (I2760)
 
117 5 children Smith, Elizabeth (I1873)
 
118 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F4485
 
119 5 horses,10 cattle, 140 sheep - Sands Directories - listing continues to 1929 Directory Luther, Frederick Christian (I636)
 
120 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Threadgold, K.J. (I1724)
 
121 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, T.J. (I3222)
 
122 7 children Crossley, John (I5885)
 
123 7 children Crossley, James Thomas (I5883)
 
124 7 children all baptised at Stow Murray, Isabel (I4043)
 
125 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Mason, A.J. (I1631)
 
126 8 children Cameron, Ann (I3946)
 
127 8 kms SE of Bathurst Peacock, Mary (I3943)
 
128 8 months old at death Royes, Henry Hougham (I2259)
 
129 9 Aug [year unreadable] Milles, Mildred (I3380)
 
130 9 children Crossley, George Richard (I5884)
 
131 9 children Crossley, Susannah (I5881)
 
132 9 Children Family F4488
 
133 9 years old Cover, Alexander Benjamin (I2129)
 
134 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, J.A. (I4615)
 
135 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Roy, S.A.M. (I851)
 
136 St Luke Old Street
Lydia is identified as from "St Botolph's Aldersgate London" 
Family F1862
 
137 MY CHILDHOOD YEARS
By Mary Dorward nee Weatherburn

I was born on April 30, 1913, in Tolga, after Mum and Dad had left Newcastle, (Adamstown), and was the third child of five. We were a very spread-out family. My brother William (Will) was the eldest, with a two and a half year gap to my sister Edith (Edie), five and a half years to me, eight years to Les (Joe) and another eight to Alan. The Gardener side of the family (Mum's side) we know about from their family history. Joseph (Joe), my Dad, had been born in Newcastle, and his father had worked in the mines there, as he, Joe, did later. My grandparents, John and Catherine, came out on the "La Hogue" in October 1878 from Durham, England, with two children, and had another six, among them my Dad. Neither Mum or Dad talked much about their past, which was a pity, so much of our family background is very sketchy.
Mum and dad were married in Newcastle. I don't know how they had met, or anything about their earlier lives. After will and Edie were born, Dad decided to leave the mines and go north, without any experience of doing anything else. Possible the Government had advertised for people to go north and open up the area, with the enticement of free land, if so, it worked. They arrived in the far north with five pounds in their pockets, bought a horse, and got a grant of three blocks of land on the Tablelands at Peeramon.
Others were up there as well, and they all helped each other clear their land and use the timber to build rough huts to live in. The logs were split lengthways, and laid flat side in, with some gaps filled with clay or mud. A drape was hung across the middle of the room, separating the sleeping and eating areas, with just the dirt floor, and it was pretty drafty. The floor would be swept clear and sprinkled with water and tea leaves, and would soon pack down as hard as concrete. The darkies (Natives) used to come and stand around the edge of the clearing every evening, staring at us, and it made Mum very nervous. They never did us any harm, but she wouldn't light a lamp at night if Dad was away, in case they'd creep closer and stare in.
Mum's brother Jesse Gardener, also came up from Newcastle and got a farm going, and later on my Uncles Ted, Will and Jim all came up north to live. (Another uncle, Harry, went to the U.S.A., and started a whole new branch of the family there.) Uncle Ted went to Yungaburra, and eventually Mum's parents came to live with us too. (They're buried in the old section of the Mareeba cemetery; the graves aren't marked anymore because years ago a fire destroyed all the wooden markers and railings.) As the land was cleared, they sold the excess timber to the mill to buy cattle and supplies, and eventually built a reasonable dairy herd.
Again, I don't know why Dad decided to sell up the farm, but he heard that the lease on the Peeramon Hotel was up for grabs, so he decided to take that up - no experience, but lots of determination. It was while they were there that Leslie was born (Over at Atherton Hospital) - he was always called Joe when he was young.
Peeramon wasn't much of a place even then, all cattle and timber, with just a station, the pub, a couple of stores and houses, etc. and a big hall on one side of the pub. On the other side (the right) was a blacksmiths where they fixed all the buggies.
Bartle Frere was the highest point on the Tablelands, and Dad decided to be the first expedition to climb it, along with a few mates and his brother-in-law, Jesse Gardener. The others where Charlie Civry, Dave Imrie and a darkie guide, Mosie.
Mum was always very anaemic, and she started to get ill not long after that. The Doctor recommended a change of climate, so Dad uprooted us all, and back south we went to Dora Creek, NSW, where Dad bought an orchard. It was a nice place, and the end of the orchard was right on the edge of Lake Eraring, which was part of the big Lake Macquarie system.
Dad used to have a boat for fishing, and we had a little canoe. No-one worried about sharks or anything - as long as you didn't see one you forgot about them. Our canoes were just made of bits of wood then, and Edie and me and another girl all went out into the lake in ours. Edie and the other girl decided to swim back to the bank, leaving me to get back as best I could. The canoe (which wasn't much more than just a raft), started to sink, and they said later that they couldn't hear me yelling! The station masters' daughter at Dora Creek came running for dear life to get me though, so I was saved. We weren’t game to tell Dad then, but later on word got around and he heard about it than, and boy was I in trouble.
I was about nine or ten when we came to Dora Creek, and had been going to school in Peeramon before that. They had a little school with one room at Dora Creek. I think Will had been to Thornborough College while we were up north, and Edie had gone to the Peeramon State School; she never did go to High School, but helped out on various orchards. They had a big hole in the backyard for the toilet, with the seat built over it, which petrified me and most of the others. We used to have big desks with inkwells, and used chalk slates as well.
School used to be good fun at times; take the cream of the milk and make butter, feed the chooks and pigs. Edie’s job was to milk the cow (whichever of the two was in milk), because I couldn't try as I might.
I started at Broadmeadows High School in January, and we left Dora Creek the following year, so I only had a bit of high school (with about 3 months illness with anaemia in the middle), and was only fourteen. We had boys' school next door to us, and we weren't supposed to have anything to do with them, but we all used to peek through the fence and chat! There was a Home nearby, too, and we did our domestic science training for them, cooking meals and scrubbing and polishing floors. We had to learn how to prepare a meal and present it properly, complete with serviettes, finger bowls, etc. At home, all the serving dishes were placed on the dresser, and Mum was served first (by the eldest daughter), then the older children down to the younger, and Dad did the carving standing at the dresser.
We were at Dora Creek for a few years. There was a lot of fishing there and some other orchards, but no farming as such. One of my favourite things about living on an orchard was the quinces - they were terrible if not ripe, but lovely when they were! Not too far from us was a Salvation Army business - Sanitarium, where they made Weet-Bix and so on, and we used to get all the scraps and slops for the pigs. Dad used to make bacon from our pigs in our smokehouse, and smoke fish, and we kept all our cold stuff in buckets in the well. We'd` even set jellies and make ice-cream, it was so cold down deep. In the winter, of course, they'd set just outside in the open! We had two cows, and made our own butter, etc. as well.
My Sunday school teacher at Dora Creek took a special liking to me, because I was a tiny little frail looking thing, and she used to look after me. It was she who told me about "growing up" and becoming a woman - Mum didn't talk about things like that. Kids weren't told anything about reproduction, of course, just the bare minimum about their bodies - the rest you learnt as you went along! I was very fond of the Sunday school teacher, and when Mum and Dad talked about going back north, she wanted to keep me there and look after me, but it wasn't allowed of course.
Dad didn't make much money from the orchard, Mum's health didn't improve, and we were gradually going broke, so he decided to go back up north and try his luck again there. He wrote to the agents (Joseph Pease) and found that there was a lease available at the Mareeba Hotel, and took that, as he'd had some prior experience with the Peeramon Pub.
When they took over the Hotel at Mareeba, Les went off to Thornborough College in Charters Towers, and later so did Alan. He started at the Mareeba State School, and we older ones helped in the Hotel; Will was in the bar, Edie did the rooms and I was dining room. Grandma and Grandpa Gardener came up from Newcastle then, and stayed with us at the Hotel, keeping chooks and raising a vegetable garden.
It was funny when Mum was having Alan - none of us knew that Mum was pregnant, only Dad. They were in the habit of going for a walk each evening and one evening Dad came home alone, and next day announced that we had a baby brother! It stunned everybody, including the town gossip, who used to pride himself on always being the first to know what was going on in town. Mum never looked pregnant with the boys, only with Edie and me, and just looked as though she was putting on a bit of weight. She was always anaemic, as I've said, and the doctor told her to eat raw minced liver. She couldn't stomach it after the first mouthful, although she tried time and time again.
At the Hotel we were always busy. At the beginning, Mum did all the cooking, but had to give it away through ill-health, and we got a girl in to do the cooking and another to do the laundry.
Lights were hurricane lamps, and candles in the bedrooms. Lamps were on each table in the dining room, and on the dresser. I did the cooking for a couple of years before I got married, and it was nothing to have to cook for two hundred, especially when football games were on! Peeling the vegetables and cooking was an enormous task, and I don't know how I coped. It took me ages after I married to learn to cook just for two!
Occasionally I would manage the bar while Mum and Dad would go out to the pictures. Mr Seary was the policeman who was sometimes very crotchety, and you had to be on your toes and close on time if he was in a bad mood! There'd only be one lamp hanging in the bar late at night, and I'd have to keep watch and warn the men in the bar if he was coming. He was very handy to have around though if some of the customers started getting a bit hard to handle. Sometimes they were very late nights, but in those days there was never much trouble, and we had a lot of boarders staying in the hotel who'd come if I'd ever need help.
Dad and some of the boys that we knew decided to play a prank on Grandpa, and pulled one of Grand-dads cabbage plants up, replacing it with a full grown one. He was stunned and terribly excited, thinking it must have been the fertilizer he'd used! They never did let on to him, either. He had to have it cooked separately, and told everyone he knew about his prize.
There were other pranks too; one night I'd been to the pictures and when I came home and went to my room on the ground floor behind the bar, something warm and hairy dragged across my legs. I let out an almighty scream, and everybody came running. It was a baby goat someone had stuck in my room, and it’s a wonder we didn't both have a heart attack!
I went to the race ball one year, and was having a lovely time in the company of a young man I liked. (Alan Dangaard) We'd had a couple of dances and I went into supper with him. Bill was there, and let on to Dad, and next thing I knew I was summoned home in disgrace. This young chap was a catholic, which just wasn't on in those days, and boy wasn't I cross! I suppose he thought he was doing the right thing, but I wiped Bill cold for a while.
Mum and Dad favoured Bill, and he wanted to marry me, but I wasn't all that keen. He was thirty two, ten years older than me, and a friend of Dad's to boot. He'd come and help me behind the bar when Mum and dad went to the pictures. Not long before he came to Mareeba he'd been engaged, evidently, but his girl caught him fooling around with someone else and broke it off, and he was quite broken hearted. He had a dodge car, which was quite flashy in those days. Mum and Dad were getting older and wanted to leave the hotel, and wanted us all off their hands, I suppose, so the next thing I knew I was engaged; you just did as you were told then. Will by this time had a farm in Mareeba; Edie was married to Reg Smith, and Les and Alan were just about grown up.
I was duly married, and later had Pam and Val, followed much later by Ken. I used to go down to the butchers to get a small roast in the mornings, and then learned to go late in the afternoon, because you could have the pick of the leftover meat for almost nothing. They had to slaughter every day because there was no refrigeration to keep the meat, of course, so they only had a certain amount available, and used to give away what wasn't sold. Sixpence a pound for rump steak, a set of brains was twopence and bred was sixpence, delivered to the door.
Not long after, War was declared. Les left Lawson’s Timber Mill in Mareeba where he was apprenticed, and joined up, which just left Alan at home, and he later started work at Winkworths in Cairns. Will was exempt because he was working in an essential industry. The night the war was announced, we were waiting for Mum and Dad to return home from holiday, but they weren't allowed to travel on the railway line at night.
Mum and Dad sold their Hotel lease during the war and went down to Cairns to stay with Will and Ruth, who'd sold their farm. Will was working at Cairns Timber Ltd. During the early part or 1940, Bill and I went to Bundaberg for a holiday, where we were to stay with some friends. We left late Friday, and arrived on the Saturday, and on Sunday around 10am some policeman came around and told us that Dad had died the day before. Apparently he'd had a stroke the night we left, and he died the next morning.
Mum bought a house in Aumuller Street, Bungalow, close to Will and Ruth, and stayed there till her death. They later sold up and went back to Mareeba, and Will then worked in the bacon factory. He did all sorts of things, stoking the fires which burnt the rubbish and offal - very hard work which must have eventually caused his heart to collapse.
Our neighbour, Mrs Craig, who was like a second mother to me, packed everything up, and Mr Craig and Bill dug a big pit and built an air raid shelter with kitchen and storeroom, filled with preserved and tinned food. There was a tiny toilet, and enough room to sleep. Mr Craig was a railway man and he used some of the old railway sleepers, so it was very strong, and covered with timber and cement ceiling. The whole thing was set into the side of a hill, and was very solid and secure. It was never used, thank goodness, though we kept the perishables up to date.
After Dad died, Mum used to go out and help at Thornborough College in Charters Towers while Alan was there - he would have been about thirteen. There was an old couple there who had given all their land over to the Old People’s Home in return for them paying the rates, etc., for their house. After the old lady’s' husband died, Mum stayed with her as the old lady wanted her company, and offered to let her stay rent free. I went up with the girls and stayed with her occasionally. The old lady gave me a glass rolling pin, which she'd had all her married life, and I had it for years too.
Printed July 1990 
Weatherburn, Mary Catherine (I5100)
 
138

Rollo (c.860 - c.932) was the Frankish-Latin name taken by (probably) Hrolf Ganger (Hrolf the Walker, Old Norse: Hrólfur Rögnvaldsson and Göngu-Hrólfur, Norwegian: Gange-Rolf). He has also been called "Rollo the Gangler" in some works, or occasionally "Robert".
Rollo was a Viking leader, probably (based on Icelandic sources) from Norway, the son of Ragnvald, Earl of Moer; sagas mention a Hrolf, son of Ragnvald jarl of Moer. However, the latinization Rollo has in no known instance been applied to a Hrolrolf, and in the texts which speak of him, numerous latinized Hrolfs are included. Dudo of St. Quentin (by most accounts a more reliable source, and at least more recent and living nearer the regions concerned), in his Gesta Normannorum, tells oof a powerful Dacian duke (or count?) at loggerheads with the king of Dacia, who then died and left his two sons, Gurim and Rollo, leaving Rollo to be expelled and Gurim killed.(1) With his followers (known as Normans, or northmen), Rollo invaded the area of northern France now known as Normandy. This does seem somewhat unlikely, as Dacia had by then ceased to exist, and was right at the opposite southeastern corner of Europe. Wace, writing some 300 years after the event, gives a Scandinavian origin, as does the Orkneyinga Saga, Danish or Norwegian most likely.
Concluding the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911) with the French king Charles the Simple, Rollo pledged feudal allegiance to the king, changed his name to the Frankish version, and converted to Christianity, probably with the baptismal name R Robert. In return he was granted the lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) and the titular rulership of Normandy, centred around the city of Rouen. There exists some argument among historians as to whether Rollo was a "duke" (dux) or whether his position was equivalent to that of a "count" under Charlemagne. According to legend, when required, in conformity with general usage, to kiss the foot of King Charles, he refused to stoop to what he considered so great a degradation; yet as the homage could not be dispensed with, he ordered one of his warriors to perform it for him. The latter, as proud as his chief, instead of stooping to the royal foot, raised it so high, that the King fell to the ground.
Sometime around 927 he passed the Duchy of Normandy to his son, William Longsword. He may have lived for a few years after that, but certainly died before 933.
He was a direct ancestor of William the Conqueror. By William, he was a direct ancestor of the present-day British royal family, including Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The "clameur de haro" on the Channel Islands is, supposedly, an appeal to Rollo.

(1) For those who assume that Dudo was confused or mistranslated in his Gesta Normannorum and really meant "Denmark" and not "Dacia", the kings of Denmark during Rollo's lifetime (c. 860-933) were probably: Harald (not the famous Harald Bluetoototh) for the first three years of Rollo's life, the two co-rulers Halfdan (not the famous Halfdan the Black) and Sigfrid, and the kings of the Swedish Olof dynasty. This may lead to additional confusion, as Ragnvald (or Rognvald or Rognvaldr) was killed by another Halfdan, the son of a Harald, but this Harald is Harald Fairhair, king of Norway.

References and external links
• D.C. Douglas, "Rollo of Normandy", English Historical Review, Vol. 57 (1942), pp. 414-436
• Robert Helmerichs, [Rollo as Historical Figure]
• Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdom under the Carolingians, 751-987, (Longman) 1983
• Dudonis gesta Normannorum (http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost11/Dudo/dud_f.html ) - Dudo of St. Quentin Gesta Normannorum latin version at Bibliotheca Augustana
• Dudo of St. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum (http://www.the-orb.net/orb_done/dudo/dudindex.html ) - An English Translation
 
Rollo 1st Duke of Normandy (I2664)
 
139
1. He is mentioned in Gillian West's article (http://royroyes.net/genealogy/showmedia.php?mediaID=660) which seeks to trace the influence of Charles Dickens's godfather, Christopher Huffam, on Dombey and Son. He is referred to as son of Solomon and serving as an assistant surgeon with the East India Company who died at the company's establishment in Madras, India.

2. The following entry can be found in the Families in British India Society website:
http://www.search.fibis.org/html/detail.php?type=pub&id=27978
Surname Royes
First Names: Solomon Hougham
Date: 23 Jul 1838
Entry: of Madras, Assistant Surgeon HEICS, bach., to Solomon Royes the father, £20, further grant 17 Mar 1843 to Benjamin Laurence & William Sanigear the executors of the said father, [d 11 Jan 1837, Lawrence of Old Fish St, London, gent., Sanigear of Lombard St, gent., entry at end of month, Estate Duty Registers], Pts
Source Name: Prerogative Court of Canterbury and Related Probate Jurisdictions: Administration Act Books
Source Repository: The National Archives
Source Repository Reference: PROB 6/214, 6/219, IR 26/257
[Note that "our" Solomon Royes died in 1842]

3. KGR has in his data the following:
British Library East India Company Medical Services.
Records of the Military Department
Entry to the military, medical and nursing services of the East India Company's Army (1753-1861) and the Indian Army (1861-1940)
Assistant Surgeons ' and Surgeons' Papers, EIC Medical Service (1804-1858) and Indian Medical Service (1858-1914)
FILE - Assistant-Surgeons' Papers (EIC) - ref. IOR/L/MIL/9/380 - date: 1827-1828
item: Rogers, Solomon Hougham [1827] - ref. IOR/L/MIL/9/380/57-62 [n.d.]
[In light of the other evidence, it is likely that "Rogers" is a misreading of "Royes"]

4. Several of his siblings have "Hougham" as their second name, no doubt reflecting the strong relationship between Solomon Royes senior and Solomon Hougham, who was his uncle but also appears to have played a leading role in fathering him after his father died when he was young. Solomon Royes senior is the major beneficiary of Solomon Hougham's will.

5. A "Solomon Royes junior" is a beneficiary of Samuel Hougham's will, distinct from "my nephew Solomon Royes the elder" - Lydia is referred to as the sister of Solomon junior

6. Did Solomon Hougham Royes visit Sydney? The Colonist, Sydney, 26 Dec 1838, lists unclaimed letters from the Government Gazette, including: Mr S.H. Royes, surgeon, Madras Army.
 
Royes, Solomon Hougham (I3227)
 
140
1180 he witnessed a grant between Hugh de Dover and the Abbotts and Monks of St Berton, St Omer, France, the lands being in Kent, England. ["Hougham-Hurley Genealogical Record", page 11]

The above reference is probably better attributed to William Brother of Robert 1 than William de Avranches.

William came to England with William the Conquerer taking the Name of the Town he left - Avranches. When William settled down, Willaim d' Avranches was made Lord of the manor of Hougham (an Anglo Saxon Manor near Dover) together with sundry other manors, and was one of the 8 Knights who were wardens over Dover Castle under John de Fienne.
He probably married Matilda, daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Devon, but no definite proof exists.
A window to his memory may be seen in Dover Castle.
Alternative view is that Robert d' Avranches's mother was one Adeliza de Moels of Normandy, cousin ( ie blood relation) to Richard, surnamed Goz, who was father of Hugh d' Avranches, the famous Earl of Chester. Installed Comte d' Avranches by William of Normandy (later William of England) in 1040. A member of the Ducal family of Normandy and a relative of Richard Goz whose son later became Ear l of Chester.

In the children, I have kept two Rualon/Robert entries because the information at this point is confusing and in conflict, but there are not two people - just the same person entered according to different sets of data.
 
d' Avranches, William (I2184)
 
141
1870 Emigrated with her mother from England to Australia
1890 Emigrated from Australia to USA with her husband and family [This date has to be after 1897 when the last child was born in Brisbane. Also, not all the children emigrated suggesting they were of an age when they could look after themselves.]

MHP (her daughter) writes [extract from notes under Ann Phillis (Knight) Hougham] :-

"During the waiting period a friend of Fred's had taken a liking for the youngest sister and when the ship was due begged her to remain and be his wife. She would not remain.

"The Darling Downs was lifting anchor, tie ropes all untied, sailors unfurling sails, getting a foot or so from her moorings, when a young man with suitcase in hand leaped aboard. John William Hurley joined the Hougham family on their return trip around Cape Colony. So Africa to England. The return trips were not emigrants, very few passengers. There is nothing more prettier or more stately than a ship in full white sail leaving or entering port unless a graceful white swan gliding along admiring its reflection in the water. The group aboard the ship were happy.

"Arriving "home" safely in due time disappointment, things had changed in those few short years. Old friends gone, some moved and some died, young folks married and got their home cares now. Most of all they had forgotten the constant fogs and drizzling rain of London and longed for the sunshine and cloudless skies of Queensland. Fred and John William were feeling the effects of the damp. Decisions had to be made.

"They all agreed that the sunny days in Australia would be good for Sarah's invalid husband, again they pack up, not only suitcases but household goods etc and soon were on their return journey to Australia going by way of South America round Cape Horn on the "British Nation" with 600 emigrants aboard. This trip was rough, crowded full of thrills and excitement they were all glad when it ended.

"Volumes could be written about this one journey alone, Suffice to say it ended safely and this story continues with the lives of each individual . The mother had her family, John William Hurley gained his prize, Mary Ann Hougham became his bride and wife. It is after this marriage that MHP enters the scene."
 
Hougham, Mary Ann (I4219)
 
142
23 Jan 1838 arrived Sydney on the Bencoolen with sister Maria.

The Wikipedia article on Mark Bell states: "...his family travelled to England when he was an infant." The move would have taken place after 30 Oct 1848 when she acquired land at Botany, and before the 1851 Channel Islands census when the family is at St Helier, Jersey - so 1849-50 - when Mark is aged 6-7?

In the 1861 census her household included son Hutchinson, daughter Emily Elizabeth, son John, daughter Anne and niece Ellen Turner, with one visitor (probably a fellow student of Hutchinson) and three servants. Note the absence of George and Mark.

In the 1871 census an Emily Smith aged 47 has two daughters Elizabeth 26 and Anne 22 Bell, born in Australia. She also has step children:
Fanny Smith 14, Howard Smith 12, Agnes Smith 11 and Ernest Smith 9. There is a reference in Yseult Bridges' How did Charles Bravo Die? to Mary Hougham (Royes) Bravo having a sister married to Henry Smith.
 
Royes, Emily (I2260)
 
143
The Book of Hougham (MHP) shows Wymund to be the son of Hrolf. However Wymund's dates - died 1109 (identified after publication of the Book of Hougham) - would seem to make this improbable. This is possibly Sur Guillaume Werlene Comte d' Avranches.
In a letter from the Dean of the faculty of Letters of Caen University, this Guillaume was father of William d' Avranches and was installed as Comte d' Avranches by William of Normandy in 1040.

From the Complete Peerage vol 4 page 317: Guitmond is the father of William d' Avranches

Planche A Corner of Kent p260.................... "
AVRANCHES.
Contemporary with the Conqueror we find a William d' Avranches who was, according to Ordericus Vitalis, the son of Guitmond, Witmund, or Wymond, and cousin (i.e. blood relation) to Richard, surnamed Goz, father of Hugh d' Avranches, the famous Earl of Chester. The exact degree of relationship has yet to be proved; but it is no part of our present inquiry, and we shall not, therefore, encumber ourselves and our readers with more questions than are absolutely necessary.

William d' Avranches is not named in Domesday, but he appears to have been one of eight knights intrusted by John de Fiennes with the wardship of Dover Castle. There is some reason to believe that his wife was Emma, (according to others, Alicia - she was the widow of William Avenel, by whom she had Ralph Avenel, Baron of Okehampton, who married Matilda, daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Devon) a daughter of Baldwin de Brionne, Viscomte or Sheriff of Devonshire: but whoever might be his wife, by her he had a son, named Rualo or Ruallon, (and another, supposed to be the elder, named Robert, the adopted heir of his uncle, Richard de Brionne, and who recovered from his half-brother Ralph Avenel the barony of Okehampton) tto whom Henry I gave in marriage Matilda, the only child of Nigel de Muneville by his wife Emma d'Arques, and heiress of Folkestone. (She survived her husband, and gave to the church of St. Andrew, Northampton, for the good of her soul, the souls of her father, her husband, and her sons, the manor of Sywell, in the county of Northampton. This gift was confirmed by her son William in 1147.-Mon.Ang.vol.i.p.680.)

Guitmund (or Wymund or Witmund or Guitemonde or Wymcomde)
A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius; born at an unknown place in Normandy during the first quarter of the eleventh century; died between 1090- 95, at Aversa, near Naples. In his youth he entered the Benedictine monastery of La-Croix-St- Leufroy in the Diocese of Evreux, and about 1060 he was studying theology at the monastery of Bec, where he had Lanfranc as teacher and St. Anselm of Canterbury as fellow-student.

In 1070 King William the Conqueror called him to England and, as an inducement to remain there, offered him a diocese. The humble monk, however, not only refused the offer, but fearlessly denounced the conquest of England by the Normans as an act of robbery ("Oratio ad Guillelmum I" in P. L., CXLIX, 1509). He then returned to Normandy and became a staunch defender of the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation against the heretical Berengarius of Tours.

Some time between 1073-77 he wrote, at the instance of one of his fellow-monks by the name of Roger, his famous treatise on the Holy Eucharist, entitled "de corporis et sanguinis Jesu Christi veritate in Eucharistia". It is written in the form of a dialogue between himself and Roger and contains an exposition as well as a refutation of the doctrines of Berengarius concerning the Holy Eucharist. Guitmund ably defends Transubstantiation against Berengarius, but his notion of the manner of the Real Presence is obscure. Moreover, he does not well distinguish between substance and accident, and hence concludes that the corruptibility of the species is merely a deception of our senses. The work has often appeared in print. The first printed edition was brought out by Erasmus (Freiburg, 1530).

Shortly after Guitmund had published his treatise against Berengarius, he obtained permission from his abbot, Odilo, to make a pilgrimage to Rome. Because the name Guitmund had become too well known to suit the humble monk, he exchanged it for that of Christianus and lived for some time in the obscurity of a Roman monastery . When Urban II, who had previously been a monk at Cluny, became pope, he appointed Guitmund Bishop of Aversa, near Naples, in 1088. A few historians hold that he afterwards became a cardinal, but there seems not to be sufficient evidence for this assumption.

Besides the work mentioned above, Guitmund is the author of a short treatise on the Trinity and of an epistle to a certain Erfastus, which deals with the same subject. His works are published in "Bibl . Patr. Lugd.", XVIII, 440 sqq.; in Gallandi, "Bibl. veterum Patr.", XIV, 240 sqq., and Migne , "P. L.", CXLIX, 1427-1513.


The following is taken from The Mullins Family in Europe website but weould appear to be a different Guitmund:

Among these lords of a district in Normandy called Perche was one named Guismund (Guitmund), Seignieur de Moulins (Moulins-la-Marche). Guismund gained the feudal title through his fealty to Rollo's dynasty and his personal relationship as son-in-law to Walter of Falaise, who held title to Moulins-la-Marche (Mills-on-the-border).
Descendants of this Guismund became known as the Famille de Moulins. In 1066, a son-in-law of Guismund II, a Guillame (William) de Moulins-la-Marche, accompanied William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, in the Battle of Hastings (depicted here oon the Bayeux Tapestry <../Media/normanknightsbayeuxtapestry.jpg> ) which added to his title of Duke of Normandy, also the title of King of England and gave rise to the Plantagenet dynasty. William de Moulins became a Comte (Count) of Perche, and inherited title to his father-in-law's lands at Moulins-la-Marche and Bonmoulins. (from watterson.freeuk.com - no longer available) )
Even before William de Moulins fought the battle for England with William the Conqueror, there is another member of the family who is recorded in Normandy history. The record of Ursin de Moulins reveals the growing affinity between the former Norsemen and the Catholic Christianity of the Franks. Ursin de Moulins was probably a contemporary or a close descendant of Guitmund I, because Ursin de Moulins sold a large parcel of land near Caen in what is now Lower Normandy to Robert de Montgomery, a Norman noble who founded Troarn Abbey on the land which he bought from Ursin de Moulins about the year 1000 a.d., according to the records of the Comtes de Pontieu (Poitou??), 1026-1279. (For this information, I am indebted to a researcher whose genealogical work was located at comeaugen.com/research.htm but is no longer available)
 
d' Avranches, Wymund II (I2669)
 
144
A letter dated 1914, sent by Walter and Georgiana GILL's daughter, Georgiana Martha GILL, junior, to her aunt Elizabeth (my great-grandmother) says "The Walter Gills are flourishing, Royes is now the happy father of 2 daughters and is living aat Lowestoft." These 2 daughters would be Eveline Alice and Diana Royes, born 1912 and 1913, to Royes and Eva Le Fleming ENSOR. Georgiana also says "My dear sister Katie is still a sad invalid" - this would be her half-sister, Mary Catherine GILL (daughter of Mary QUICK), who died 1920. Georgiana also mentions Royes' sisters, Ida (Mary Ida GILL), and Vera (Alice Vera GILL), and "Mrs. Fulford and Janie".
Mrs. Fulford was Emma Sarah GILL who first married John William SHERRIFF (died 1891), then Robert Medley FULFORD.
Janie was Jane Taylor GILL ("Deaf and dumb from birth", like her brother Walter George).
Walter George's wife, Alice Mary Turner Bravo, was alive on the 1911 Census, "Deaf and dumb from age 5").
Georgiana also mentions "cousin Fred" - this was my grandfather, Frederick Rudolph Hay HORA, one of the 6 sons (there were also 3 daughters) of Henry Whinfield HORA and Elizabeth KING.
Georgiana signs her letter "Your loving Niece, Georgie M. ALKEN". Georgiana Martha GILL first married Charles IRVING (died 1889), then Rev. Henry Seffrien ALKEN.
 
Gill, Georgiana Martha (I1857)
 
145
A letter from Timothy to the compiler of the history (Marion Hurley Pratt) states: "Why I inferred the family was of Scandinavian origin was that my father wrote as follows - The Offams were of the oldest settled land owners in Kent and Sussex, they were lineal descendants of the raiding pirating Danes who ravaged the south coast of England demanding danegeld [a land tax levied in medieval England, originally to raise funds for protection against Danish invaders] and settled there wiith numerous followers two or three generations before the Northmen of Normandy invaded and conquered Britain. Some of the Houghams settled on the coast south of Dover and in the Isle of Thanet. They welcomed and assisted their kinsmen William of Normandy who after success awarded them gifts of land."

Also known as Count Regnvald ("the Rich") and as "The Wise", Earl of North and South More, of Raumsdale in Norway.

HARALD HAARFAGR.
Till about the Year of Grace 860 there were no kings in Norway, nothing but numerous jarls,--essentially kinglets, each presiding over a kind of republican or parliamentary little territory; generally striving each to be on some terms of human neighborhood with those about him, but,-- in spite of "_Fylke Things_" (Folk Things, little parish parliaments), and small combinations of these, which had gradually formed themselves,-- often reduced to the unhappy state of quarrel with them. Harald Haarfagr was the first to put an end to this state of things, and become memorable and profitable to his country by uniting it under one head and making a kingdom of it; which it has continued to be ever since. His father, Halfdan the Black, had already begun this rough but salutary process,--inspired by the cupidities and instincts, by the faculties and opportunities, which the good genius of this world, beneficent often enough under savage forms, and diligent at all times to diminish anarchy as the world's worst savagery, usually appoints in such cases,--conquest, hard fighting, followed by wise guidance of the conquered;--but it was Harald the Fairhaired, his son, who conspicuously carried it on and completed it. Harald's birth-year, death-year, and chronology in general, are known only by inference and computation; but, by the latest reckoning, he died about the year 933 of our era, a man of eighty-three.

The business of conquest lasted Harald about twelve years (A.D. 860-872?), in which he subdued also the vikings of the out-islands, Orkneys, Shetlands, Hebrides, and Man. Sixty more years were given him to consolidate and regulate what he had conquered, which he did with great judgment, industry and success. His reign altogether is counted to have been of over seventy years.

The beginning of his great adventure was of a romantic character.--youthful love for the beautiful Gyda, a then glorious and famous young lady of those regions, whom the young Harald aspired to marry. Gyda answered his embassy and prayer in a distant, lofty manner: "Her it would not beseem to wed any Jarl or poor creature of that kind; let him do as Gorm of Denmark, Eric of Sweden, Egbert of England, and others had done,--subdue into peace and regulation the confused, contentious bits of jarls round him, and become a king; then, perhaps, she might think of his proposal: till then, not."

Harald was struck with this proud answer, which rendered Gyda tenfold more desirable to him. He vowed to let his hair grow, never to cut or even to comb it till this feat were done, and the peerless Gyda his own. He proceeded accordingly to conquer, in fierce battle, a Jarl or two every year, and, at the end of twelve years, had his unkempt (and almost unimaginable) head of hair clipt off,--Jarl Rognwald (_Reginald_) of More, the most valued and valuable of all his subject-jarls, being promoted to this sublime barber function;--after which King Harald, with head thoroughly cleaned, and hair grown, or growing again to the luxuriant beauty that had no equal in his day, brought home his Gyda, and made her the brightest queen in all the north. He had after her, in succession, or perhaps even simultaneously in some cases, at least six other wives; and by Gyda herself one daughter and four sons.

Harald was not to be considered a strict-living man, and he had a great deal of trouble, as we shall see, with the tumultuous ambition of his sons; but he managed his government, aided by Jarl Rognwald and others, in a large, quietly potent, and successful manner; and it lasted in this royal form till his death, after sixty years of it.

These were the times of Norse colonization; proud Norsemen flying into other lands, to freer scenes,--to Iceland, to the Faroe Islands, which were hitherto quite vacant (tenanted only by some mournful hermit, Irish Christian _fakir_, or so); still more copiously to the Orkney and Shetland Isles, the Hebrides and other countries where Norse squatters and settlers already were. Settlement of Iceland, we say; settlement of the Faroe Islands, and, by far the notablest of all, settlement of Normandy by Rolf the Ganger (A.D. 876?).[2]

Rolf, son of Rognwald,[3] was lord of three little islets far north, near the Fjord of Folden, called the Three Vigten Islands; but his chief means of living was that of sea robbery; which, or at least Rolf's conduct in which, Harald did not apppprove of. In the Court of Harald, sea-robbery was strictly forbidden as between Harald's own countries, but as against foreign countries it continued to be the one profession for a gentleman; thus, I read, Harald's own chief son, King Eric that afterwards was, had been at sea in such employments ever since his twelfth year. Rolf's crime, however, was that in coming home from one of these expeditions, his crew having fallen short of victual, Rolf landed with them on the shore of Norway, and in his strait, drove in some cattle there (a crime by law) and proceeded to kill and eat; which, in a little while, he heard that King Harald was on foot to inquire into and punish; whereupon Rolf the Ganger speedily got into his ships a again, got to the coast of France with his sea- robbers, got infeftment by the poor King of France in the fruitful, shaggy desert which is since called Normandy, land of the Northmen; and there, gradually felling the forests, banking the riversrs, tilling the fields, became, during the next two centuries, Wilhelmus Conquaestor, the man famous to England, and momentous at this day, not to England alone, but to all speakers of the English tongue, now spread from side to side of the world in a wonderful degree. Tancred of Hauteville and his Italian Normans, though important too, in Italy, are not worth naming in comparison. This is a feracious earth, and the grain of mustard-seed will grow to miraculous extent in some cases.

Harald's chief helper, counsellor, and lieutenant was the above-mentioned Jarl Rognwald of More, who had the honor to cut Harald's dreadful head of hair. This Rognwald was father of Turf-Einar, who first invented peat in the Orkneys, finding thhe wood all gone there; and is remembered to this day. Einar, being come to these islands by King Harald's permission, to see what he could do in them,--islands inhabited by what miscellany of Picts, Scots, Norse squatters we do not know,--found the indispensable fuel all wasted. Turf-Einar too may be regarded as a benefactor to his kind. He was, it appears, a bastard; and got no coddling from his father, who disliked him, partly perhaps, because "he was ugly and blind of an eye,"--got no flattering even on his conquest of the Orkneys and invention of peat. Here is the parting speech his father made to him on fitting him out with a "long-ship" (ship of war, "dragon-ship," ancient seventy-four), and sending him forth to make a living for himself in the world: "It were best if thou never camest back, for I have small hope that thy people will have honor by thee; thy mother's kin throughout is slavish."

Harald Haarfagr had a good many sons and daughters; the daughters he married mostly to jarls of due merit who were loyal to him; with the sons, as remarked above, he had a great deal of trouble. They were ambitious, stirring fellows, and grudged at their finding so little promotion from a father so kind to his jarls; sea-robbery by no means an adequate career for the sons of a great king, two of them, Halfdan Haaleg (Long-leg), and Gudrod Ljome (Gleam), jealous of the favors won by the great Jarl Rognwald. surrounded him in his house one night, and burnt him and sixty men to death there. That was the end of Rognwald, the invaluable jarl, always true to Haarfagr; and distinguished in world history by producing Rolf the Ganger, author of the Norman Conquest of England, and Turf-Einar, who invented peat in the Orkneys. Whether Rolf had left Norway at this time there is no chronology to tell me. As to Rolf's surname, "Ganger," there are various hypotheses; the likeliest, perhaps, that Rolf was so weighty a man no horse (small Norwegian horses, big ponies rather) could carry him, and that he usually walked, having a mighty stride withal, and great velocity on foot.

One of these murderers of Jarl Rognwald quietly set himself in Rognwald's place, the other making for Orkney to serve Turf-Einar in like fashion. Turf-Einar, taken by surprise, fled to the mainland; but returned, days or perhaps weeks after, ready for battle, fought with Halfdan, put his party to flight, and at next morning's light searched the island and slew all the men he found. As to Halfdan Long-leg himself, in fierce memory of his own murdered father, Turf-Einar "cut an eagle on his back," that is to say, hewed the ribs from each side of the spine and turned them out like the wings of a spread-eagle: a mode of Norse vengeance fashionable at that time in extremely aggravated cases!

Harald Haarfagr, in the mean time, had descended upon the Rognwald scene, not in mild mood towards the new jarl there; indignantly dismissed said jarl, and appointed a brother of Rognwald (brother, notes Dahlmann), though Rognwald had left other sons. Which done, Haarfagr sailed with all speed to the Orkneys, there to avenge that cutting of an eagle on the human back on Turf-Einar's part. Turf-Einar did not resist; submissively met the angry Haarfagr, said he left it all, what had been done, what provocation there had been, to Haarfagr's own equity and greatness of mind. Magnanimous Haarfagr inflicted a fine of sixty marks in gold, which was paid in ready money by Turf-Einar, and so the matter ended.

Constantine II (900-943)
One of the greatest of early Scottish kings, his long reign (900-943) being proof of his power during a period of dynastic conflicts and foreign invasions. During the first part of his reign the kingdom was still beset by the Norsemen. In his ththird year they wasted Dunkeld and all of Alba. They were repulsed, however, in Strathearn the following year. In his eighth year Rognwald, the Danish king of Dublin, with earls Ottir and Oswle Crakaban, ravaged Dunblane. Six years later the same leaders were defeated on the Tyne by Constantine in a battle whose site and incidents are told in conflicting stories; it appears certain, however, that Constantine saved his dominions from further serious attacks by the Vikings.

In spite of his wars, Constantine found time in the early part of his reign for two important reforms, one ecclesiastical and the other civil. In his sixth year (906) he established the Scottish church, which the Pictish kings had earlier suppressed. Two years later, on the death of Donald, king of the Britons of Strathclyde, Constantine procured the election of his own brother Donald to that kingdom.

He had now to meet a more formidable foe, the West Saxons, whose kings were steadily moving northward. In league with other northern kings, Constantine was decisively defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh (937) by King Athelstan. The slaughter was devastating. A son of Constantine was slain, as were four kings and seven earls. Constantine himself escaped to Scotland, where in old age he resigned the crown for the tonsure and became abbot of the Culdees of St. Andrews. He was succeeded by a cousin, Malcolm I.
 
Eysteinsson, Rognvald Earl of Møre and the Orcades (I2663)
 
146
A Sam. Tyson Royes listed In Index to Quarter Sessions cases, Sydney, Oct 1831. He was charged with stealing 11 shillings one penny from his employer, Capper Pass, Baker in George Street. He presented to his trial two references
(1) from Thomas Dobson of London dated 5 Aug 1829 to Robert Lambert of "Bathurst, Sydney" to "introduce... Mr Samuel Tyssen Royes – he purposes visiting New South Wales in hopes of making his fortune. I have had the pleasure to know his father for upwards of thirty years - a very respectable upright honest man..."
(2) from ? Lachlan of 22 Great Alie Street [Whitechapel, London] dated 3 Aug 1829 to J. Coghill of Sydney: "I take the liberty by this of introducing to you Mr Royes (son of a highly respectable gentleman) who visits Australia in search of employment. If you want a Clerk or Superintendent on your farm you will oblige me by taking Mr Royes he has ever conducted himself with the strictest sobriety, integrity, industry and ability..."
It seems his employer claimed that he had stolen £8.15.0 but it appears that Samuel challenged this for there are subsequent statements from his employer stating inter alia that "I cannot swear whether the prisoner informed me before he went into the hospital about 3 weeks ago [from 13 Sep 1831] that he had received the said moneys or not."
Samuel pleaded guilty on the 20th and was sentenced on the 25th "to be imprisoned in His Majesty's Gaol of Sydney for and during the of [sic] three calendar months". And that is the last we know of Samuel.

One Tyssen had Hougham as a second name and there are several Samuel Tyssens, one of whom married a Hougham. Samuel Tyssen Royes is a cousin. I believe it is safe to assume that this Samuel Tyssen Royes is the son of Solomon Royes and Mary Hougham, and that he arrived in Sydney towards the end of 1829 (based on his letters of reference)
 
Royes, Samuel Tyssen (I543)
 
147
Acceded 1130.

Son of William by Maud. [Hasteds History of Kent Vol 3 page 370]

This name Rualon, who married Maud de Muneville, heiress of Folkestone, being most capriciously spelt, not only Roellandus, Ruellinus, Roelent, Rualo, and Ruallon, but also Graalandus and Graelent, - Planche

Did Rualon have a brother Robert? [See notes on his possible grandfather Guitmond/Wymond]
Are Rualon and Robert the same person? Many genealogists seem to think so, but not all.
Did Rualon marry twice?
There seems to be a lot of confusion at this point in the family tree!

In 1066 STANTON [a manor in Oxfordshire], including land in South Leigh, was held by Alnod, and in 1086 by Odo of Bayeux: it was reckoned at 26 hides, of which one lay in Hanborough and was given to Oseney abbey c. 1138. Another 1 ? hide in 'Pereio', probably in South Leigh, and held under Odo by Wadard, was apparently absorbed into the main Stanton estate before the late 12th century. Following Odo's forfeiture the estate was held possibly by Ranulf Flambard, and in 1101 by Rualon d'Avranches, perhaps in custody. [Hist. Mon. Abingdon (Rolls Ser.), ii. 84-5; Royal Writs Eng. (Selden Soc. lxxvii), p. 485] Before 1130 Henry I gave it to his second wife Queen Adela, who alienated it piecemeal, mostly after 1135.
-'Stanton Harcourt: Manors and other estates', A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 12: Wootton Hundred (South) including Woodstock (1990), pp. 274-81. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=8119. Date accessed: 20 August 2005.
 
d' Avranches, Rualon Sheriff of Kent (I2181)
 
148
Address when married was Coronation Terrace Larne
Draper when married
Migrated to Australia on the S.S. Diogenes, arriving in Fremantle /Melbourne in 1923. Headed for Cairns on 'Wyandra" based on rosy stories about the far north from Hugh Wiley (Sam's uncle), arriving 23 Oct 1923, only to find that Hugh had left shortly before. After a failed attempt to start a softdrink business, Sam worked for Dillon's cordial factory in McLeod Street before going on to other jobs.
Friends from Ireland living in Cairns were Richard & Bertha RUDDELL. Daughter or G/Daughter was Myrell RANN who lived in Bayview Heights Q. 4868

DIOGENES / MATAROA 1922
was 12,341 gross tons, length 500.4ft x beam 63.2ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 13.5 knots. Accommodation for 130-1st and 422-3rd class passengers. Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast as the DIOGENES for the Aberdeen Line, she was laaunched on 2nd Mar.1922 and started her maiden voyage from London to Brisbane on 4th July 1922. Chartered to Shaw, Savill & Albion Line in June 1926, she was renamed MATAROA, converted from coal to oil fuel and given a speed of 15 knots. She then started sailings from Southampton to Wellington via Panama. In 1931 she was converted to carry 131-cabin class passengers and in 1932 came under the ownership of Shaw, Savill & Albion Line. In Nov.1940 she became a troopship mainly to South Africa and was then used to carry meat cargoes from South America to the UK. In 1944 she was used to carry US troops to Northern Ireland in preparation for the Normandy Invasion. Irish pressure in Southern Ireland and the USA decreed that no Ameriicans of Irish descent should go to the North in case of cross border friction, so the US Army sent all black troops to Ireland. In 1948 the ship resumed commercial service with accommodation for 372-tourist class passengers and she made her last sailing on 21st Nov.1956. On 29th Mar.1957 she arrived at Faslane for scrapping. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.10, Shaw, Savill & Albion]
 
Roy, Samuel Russell (I853)
 
149
Adela. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 30, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

born 1062? died 1137
French Adéle  daughter of William I the Conqueror of England and mother of Stephen, king of England, whose right to the throne derived through her.

Adela was married to Stephen, count of Meaux and Brie, in 1080 at Breteuil. Upon the death of his father in 1090, her husband succeeded to the countships of Blois and Chartres. She took an active interest in civil and ecclesiastical affairs anand was instrumental in rebuilding the Cathedral of Chartres in stone. In 1095 she became regent when her husband, at her urging, took part in the First Crusade to the Holy Land. He returned in 1099 but left to join the Second Crusade in 1101 and was killed in battle at Ramula. Adela continued as regent during the minority of her sons and was increasingly active in public life.

Anselm, the archbishop of Canterbury, her guest and teacher in 1097, was often entertained by her between 1103 and 1105, and she helped to effect a temporary reconciliation between him and her brother the English king Henry I in regard to the ininvestiture controversy. In 1107 Adela entertained Pope Paschal II during Easter and in the following year was hostess to Bohemond I, prince of Antioch. She made her son Theobald her successor in 1109 and entered a convent in the diocese of Autun but continued to wield an important influence in public and clerical affairs. She persuaded Theobald to join her brother Henry I against the king of France in 1117.
 
of Normandy, Adele (I1040)
 
150
AKA Louis The Younger,  French Louis Le Jeune  Capetian king of France who pursued a long rivalry, marked by recurrent warfare and continuous intrigue, with Henry II of England.

In 1131 Louis was anointed as successor to his father, Louis VI, and in 1137 he became the sole ruler at his father's death. Louis married Eleanor, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine, in 1137, a few days before his effective rule began, and he thus temporarily extended the Capetian lands to the Pyrenees. Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestige of the kingship through an administrative government based on trustworthy men of humble origin and by cconsolidating his rule over his royal domains rather than by adding new acquisitions. From 1141 to 1143 he was involved in a fruitless conflict with Count Thibaut of Champagne and the papacy. But thereafter his relations with the popes were good; Alexander II, whom he supported against Frederick Barbarossa, took refuge in France. But the major threat to his reign came from Geoffrey, count of Anjou and, briefly, of Normandy, and Geoffrey's son Henry, who later (1154) became King Henry II of England as well as ruler of both Anjou and Normandy. After Louis repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on March 21, 1152, she married Henry, who then took over control of Aquitaine. Ironically, this act was probably to Capetian advantage because Aquitaine might have drained the resources of Louis's kingdom while bringing him little revenue. After the death of Louis's second wife, he married Alix of Champagne, whose Carolingian blood brought added prestige to the monarchy (1160); their son became Philip II Augustus.

Louis might have defeated Henry if he had made concerted attacks rather than weak assaults on Normandy in 1152. Anglo-Norman family disputes saved Louis's kingdom from severe incursions during the many conflicts that Louis had with Henry betweeen 1152 and 1174. Louis was helped by the quarrel (1164–70) between Henry and Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and a revolt (1173–74) of Henry's sons. Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, who acted as regent in 1147–49 while Louis was away on the Second Crusade, is the primary historian for Louis's reign.
-- Encyclopedia Britannica
 
Louis VII King of France (1137-1180) (I4061)
 
151
Alia Squire/ Bailey William was also known in his children's birth registrations (except Richard) as "Henry". This may have been his nickname to distinguish him from his father. William named his property "Clyde Farm", and the original homestead is still there, a stone built two-story cottage, now falling to pieces. Here, as with many of the Valley's old cottages, the main trouble was the lack of an adequate lime-mixture to bind the sandstone blocks. From the layout of the rooms it shows there was a front parlour with an open fireplace. Off this was the parent's bedroom, and from this a ladder ascended to the 'loft' above, where, with a rough division between the girls and boys, the family slept. As this upstairs area spread over most of the space below it was reasonably roomy even though dark by today's standards. Having a shingled roof, would have kept the area reasonably cool. A kitchen with a high-mantled fireplace led from the parlour, and off the kitchen at one end was a small room, probably used as a cool room or storeroom, where milk and other perishables could be kept for a short time. There was originally no glass in any of the windows, being at that time too expensive, instead wooden window shutters were used. As families worked from dawn to dusk, and retired to their beds quite early, very little light was needed. Oil lamps, later followed by kerosene lamps were used when needed.

THE 1842 WATERSPOUT According to the Sydney Morning Herald it was reported that a waterspout struck the neighbourhood of the Upper MacDonald. The violence of this stupendous aqueduct was principally on the farm of Mr Bailey, over which it descended and literally propelled four acres of ripe wheat a distance of upwards two hundred yards... Parties were to be seen running in every direction endeavouring to drive their cattle beyond the reach of the flood coming up The Branch. The waters gradually disappeared after the first grand burst, which is described by an eye witness as rolling onwards like a huge mountain.

Sources : NSW BDM Page 4233 Reg number 1865 St Albans NSW Page Ref V18202503 3A Witnesses to the marriage of William Bailey and Jane Knight were William ? and Price Morris who signed with an X Event Death: Reg no 4233/1865/St Albans/NSW

Cause of Death... Bilious fever

Like his brother John, William did not leave anything in his will to his first family. Everything went to Jane who in turn divided up the property amongst their children. Copies of both wills are held by Trevor Phee.
 
Bailey, William Henry (I1865)
 
152
Also called SAINT LOUIS, king of France from 1226 to 1270, the most popular of the Capetian monarchs. He led the Seventh Crusade to the Holy Land in 1248-50 and died on another crusade to Tunisia.
Early life.
Louis was the fourth child of King Louis VIII and his queen, Blanche of Castile, but, since the first three died at an early age, Louis, who was to have seven more brothers and sisters, became heir to the throne. He was raised with particular care by his parents, especially his mother.
Experienced horsemen taught him riding and the fine points of hunting. Tutors taught him biblical history, geography, and ancient literature. His mother instructed him in religion herself and educated him as a sincere, unbigoted Christian. Louis was a boisterous adolescent, occasionally seized by fits of temper, which he made efforts to control.
When his father succeeded Philip II Augustus in 1223, the long struggle between the Capetian dynasty and the Plantagenets of England (who still had vast holdings in France) was still not settled, but there was a temporary lull, since the English king, Henry III, was in no position to resume the war. In the south of France the Albigensian heretics, who were in revolt against both church and state, had not been brought under control. Finally, there was ferment and the threat of revolt among the great nobles, who had been kept in line by the firm hand of Philip Augustus.
Louis VIII managed to bring these external and internal conflicts to an end. In 1226 Louis VIII turned his attention to quelling the Albigensian revolt, but he unfortunately died at Montpensier on Nov. 8, 1226, on returning from a victorious expedition. Louis IX, who was not yet 13, became king under the regency of his redoubtable mother.
Feast day August 25.
 
Louis IX King of France (I3636)
 
153
An orphan, he never saw his father and his mother died when he was 5 years of age. He was put in the keeping of a guardian. Put out to live in various homes working at 9 or 10 of age, in coal mines before 12 and by 15 of age almost blind from long hours underground. When he did come up to daylight one day the bright sun blinded him. After several months of treatment, he regained his sight. At 19 he made overland trip horseback from Sydney to Brisbane through bushland. Employed at Smelters at Bulimba, Brisbane, Queensland, he met Mary Ann Hougham. She with her mother, brother and sister embarked by sailing ship to return to London England. He took passage also.

He was strictly temperance being a member of Rechabite Lodge and Independent Order of Good Templars, and was at one time past Grand Master. He also was a member of school board and chairman of cemetery board.

Voyage to England took three months of sailing. When the folks arrived they did not find London the same. Its fogs were very distasteful unhealthy after Queenslands sunny skies. So they all returned again by saling ship via Cape Horn, a very exciting and dangerous trip of three months. Having travelled via cape colony before, they had literally been all around the earth by sailing ship

Mary Ann Hougham was born at Stepney, London. Educated at a ladies private school. A member of the Primative Methodist church (which years later amalgamated with the Wesleyan Methodists) she also was a member of Bands of Hope and temperance lodgdge. One of the most cherished memories being the annual programmes given at the Crystal Palace in London by many combined Bands of Hope. At 17 of age she was a governess at the young ladies school. It was superintended by two maiden ladies named Bullock and was on Mile End Road near to corner of Bakers Row.

It was 1872 or 73 when the family first sailed to Australia and this second trip was about May 1876. Soon after arrival back John William and Mary Ann were married in the Methodist Church on Leichardt St, Spring Hill, Brisbane 13 Jan 1877.They bought property a home and a wood, coke and coal depot at corner of Brunswick St and Gurphy St, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, adjoining the Methodist Church. John William also had vans for hire. Mary Ann was bookkeeper for the business. About 4 years after marriage John William had the misfortune to cut his right thumb off on the circular saw. It was Christmas time, the doctor got drinking and neglected the thumb, gangrene set in and more of the hand had to be taken off, meanwhile the business suffered and was sold out. Life with its ups and downs became their position but through it all they clung closely and faithfully together,having eleven children who the fed clothed and educated and raised horourably. In the later years they heard and accepted the gospel and became members of the LDS Church, received their temple sealings, and at a good age passed the great divide, leaving many descendants to cherish their teachings and memories.
 
Hurley, John William (I4218)
 
154
Angoulême: city, capital of Charente département, Poitou-Charente région, former capital of Angoumois, southwestern France. It lies on a high plateau above the junction of the Charente and Anguienne rivers, southwest of Limoges. Taken from the Visigoths by Clovis in 507, it was the seat of the counts of Angoulême from the 9th century. Fought over by the French and English in the Hundred Years' War, it also suffered in the religious wars of the late 16th century. The Land of Angoulême was the name given to the site of present-day New York City in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, who discovered the harbour while serving King Francis I, who was also count of Angoulême. Angoulême's 19th-century town hall occupies the site of the counts' château (birthplace of Margaret of Angoulême), of which two towers, the Valois (15th century) and the Lusignan (13th century), remain. The Cathedral of Saint-Pierre (1105–28; restored 19th century) is a domed Romanesque-Byzantine structurure whose elaborate facade, enriched with Romanesque sculpture, contrasts sharply with the stark, aisleless interior. Angoulême's old city ramparts have been razed to make way for boulevards with extensive views.The city's diversified industries, mostly located in the surrounding suburbs, include papermaking and the manufacture of felt, iron, jewelry, bricks, and refrigerators. Pop. (1999) 43,171.

"Angouleme." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2003.  Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
08 Nov, 2003  
 
Aymer Count of Angouleme (I2911)
 
155
Arrived Brisbane 1881 Invented and manufactured the Lumsden Corn Planter. Died aged 91.
When the sailing ship "Otago" was four months out from its home port - Glasgow, Scotland - bound for Australia, it was given up for lost, but after a gruelling voyage it finally reached Brisbane in 1881. Alexander and Mary Ann Lumsden, with their eldest daughter, Isabella, were passengers. An epidemic had broken out among the small children on board, and many lives had been lost. Among them, the Lumsden's baby daughter Ann.
Alexander Lumsden was born in Pittenween [Correction: born in Crail, grew up in Pittenweem], a small fishing village in Fifeshire. When still young he was sent to Glasgow to become apprenticed to a blacksmith. He had many vivid stories to tell of this time in his life, when he was only one of several boys apprenticed to, and living in the household of, the one master. He always searched for education, and to this end attended high school in Glasgow. Mary Ann Lumsden was born in Perthshire, not far from Glamis Castle. Prior to the motor age a master blacksmith was in great demand, so work was quickly found in Brisbane in 1881.
At this time the Western Railway was being built through Mitchell. Mr George Anderson, who was well known as a wheel-wright in Toowoomba, held the contract for the line. Mr Anderson enlisted the services of Alexander Lumsden who then took hiis family to live in Mitchell. After some years in Mitchell, the Lumsden family moved to Allora (southern Darling Downs) in 1886, where Alexander commenced his own business as a blacksmith. He had an inventive turn of mind and was always planning something new to be made at his forge.
His most successful invention was "The Lumsden Corn-planter". This machine was an excellent aid to farmers, and Alexander manufactured them in large quantities. His supply could never keep up with demand. Despite his success he was most un-business-like in management, and did not ever patent his machine, so that this then became the forerunner to a machine later produced by Australia's then largest farm machine company. At his death in 1943, some of his planters were still in use on the Darling Downs.
Alexander was a gifted musician. In Scotland he had been precentor at the church and choir master, and in Allora his voice was always in demand and enjoyed by the community. He was always a great reader and rather a dreamer, and when the constatant clang of his anvil finally took his hearing completely, he lost the pleasure of his music and turned more to his books. Through their works the great apostles and poets became his friends. He was a familiar figure because of his luxuriant, well-tended white beard and because of his constant quoting from his favourite apostle, Paul.
Both Alexander and Mary Ann played a prominent part in the establishment of the Presbyterian church in the district. Mary Ann became a well-known personality in Allora. All her life she gave devoted service to her church in all its activities, and each year attended the State Assembly in Brisbane and thus made friends all over the state. She was a strong character, sympathetic and warm-hearted, and all forms of charitable work drew her interest. She had many friends among all denoominations, all were happy to enjoy the hospitality of her home, "Girlington". Mary Ann was a member of the WCTU (Womens Christian Temperance Union), and during World War 1 was an enthusiastic worker for the Red Cross. Later she became the first Treasurer for the QCWA (Queensland Country Womens Association) in Allora. She was a successful and competent nurse, and was proud to claim the nursing of the second generation of children. Her association with the SA League was one of her last pleasures. Mary Ann died at the age of 89 at her home, and Alexander at the age of 91, also at Girlington. They had four daughters - Mrs A.G. McKenzie, Mrs W.H. Ackinson, Mrs F.E. Green, and Mrs D.D. Campbell.
These were happy migrants who enjoyed the new country of Australia and made it their own. They lived a life of service and christian fellowship with others. Alexander was once questioned as to whether he would like to return to the home land - he looked thoroughly astonished and replied, "What? And leave sunny Queensland?"
- Notes prepared by Mary (wife?) from newspaper clippings daughter Jess had saved.

This name derives from the old manor of Lumsden in the parish of Coldingham, Berwickshire. the earliest recording of the name appears some time between 1166 and 1182 when brothers Gillem (William) and Cren de Lumsden witnessed a charter by Earl Waldeve of Dunbar to the Priory of Coldingham. The lands of Lumsden are first mentioned in a charter dated 1098 of Edgar, King of Scots and son of Malcolm Canmore. Gillem and Cren de Lumsden are the earliest recorded owners of the lands. In 1296 Adam Lumsden of that Ilk and Roger de Lumsden were among those who did forced homage to Edward I of England, their names appearing on the Ragman Rolls.
 Around 1328 Gilbert de Lumsden married the heiress of Blanerne of that Ilk and in 1329 received a charter from the Earl of Angus for the Blanerne lands. By the mid 14th Century offshoots of the family had charters to lands in Conlan in Fife annd Medlar and Cushnie in Aberdeenshire. Three Lumsden brothers fought for the Swedish King, Gustavus Adolphu s in the mid 1600s. A unit in his service was named Lumsden's Musketeers. One of the brothers, James Lumsden of Innergellie returned from his duties for the Swedish King to support the Covenanters; he fought at Marston Moor in 1644, where Charles I was defeated and captured, and at the Battle of Dunbar in 1650 where he served under David Leslie. His brother Robert of Mountquhanie defended Dundee against General Monck and was killed on its surrender. Blanerne or Lumsden Castle, Duns, was acquired in the 14th Century. Cushnie, Alford, Pitcaple Castle Inverurie and Tillycairn Castle, Cluny are also owned by the family.
-- http://www.lumsdenclan.com/
 
Lumsden, Alexander Barnes (I623)
 
156
Arthur Hougham records Michael as son of Thomas Hougham and Alice Contry in the absence of any other evidence

Church warden in 1657

the pedigree from Michael is taken from the registers of Preston church and the spelling is Huffam throughout

Michael son of Henry bypasses his own brother and nephew and names Henry Hougham my kinsman heir, his own brother Henry having died in 1674

Does the following note pertain to this Michael?

COURT IN SESSION - ORDER BOOKS - East Kent - FILE - Order Book - ref. Q/SO/E/1 [n.d.] item: East Kent Order Book, Epiphany 1660/1 - ref. Q/SO/E1/f.48 [n.d.] [from Scope and Content] William Bing and Michael Huffam, two of the inhabitants of the parish of Preston, for the decay of a bridge in the parishes of Preston and Elmstone leading from Preston and Elmstone to Canterbury and Sandwich.

Memorial Inscription in Preston Church in the south aisle on a flat stone. Here lieth The Body of Michael HOUGHAM, Son of Henry Hougham who died A.D. 1679. Anno Aetatis 61
 
Huffam, Michael (I2575)
 
157
Baptism at Parish of St Lawrence [Sydney], County of Cumberland NSW
Lived at Cleveland St and Father was Mariner (Ch of England)
In Death Reg. Mother listed as Maria BOYLE (could be error from submitter)

Reference in Queensland Gazette Under Dept. of Public Lands, Brisbane 1st September 1888 page 15: Return of all Applications for Timber and other Licenses made to and granted by the Land Commissioners during the months and at the places hereunder specified... Ravenswood (for the month of July 1888) George Royes 'To cut Firewood' 10 shillings (AU$0.10).

There is a male "H ROYES" listed in the Home Hill Cemetery died 5 Jan 1934 and buried 6 Jan 1934 in grave #369, aged 90, cause of death senility. I believe this is George Hougham Royes but would be aged 87 - I need further confirmation before changing his data. There is also a "J ROYES" in the Home Hill Cemetery list and I suspect this is his wife, Jane.
 
Royes, George Hougham (I937)
 
158
Became Lord of Folkestone 1095

From "Corrections to Domesday Descendants" [www.linacre.ox.ac.uk/research/prosop/ Corrections%20to%20Domesday%20Descendants.doc]...

Nigel de Monneuile

Norman, from Monville, Seine-Maritime, arr. Rouen, cant. Clères, according to Loyd, 69, but much more likely to have originated in the west of Normandy, at Muneville-le-Bingard, Manche. Occurs in Domesday Book holding of a moneyer in York; his pposition in the entry suggests he was associated with Robert of Mortain. Among two charters granting land at Le Bingard to Mont-Saint-Michel, one of them by Humphrey de Cambernon, a vassal of Robert of Mortain, was a grant by a certain Ralph, hihis wife Asa and son Nigel (Cartulary of Mont-Saint-Michel, fol. 35r). He occurs in 1093-6 among the knights of the archbishop of Canterbury, following his marriage to Emma, daughter of William of Arques, lord of Folkestone. Founder of Folkestone priory, a cell of Lonlay, c. 1095, and also a benefactor of Bermondsey priory (Mon. Ang. iv, 672; v, 96) in 1103. His heir at his death c. 1103 was his daughter Matilda, wife of Rualon d'Avranches (d. 1130-4) (ibid, iv, 674). His widow Emma married secondly Manasser count of Guînes.
 
de Monville, Nigel of Folkestone (I489)
 
159
BOOK: Emma: The Twice-Crowned Queen: England in the Viking Age by Isabella Strachan. The first full biography of Queen Emma.
[ISABELLA STRACHAN is a former staff writer and sub-editor on the Encyclopaedia Britannica.]
In 1002, a beautiful eighteen-year-old named Emma, the half-Danish sister of the Duke of Normandy and the descendant of the Vikings, sailed to England to be the queen of Ethelred the Unready, who needed a Norman alliance against Viking raiders. The political and marital career on which Emma embarked was to be unique for an English queen. Before it was over she would have married two kings, Ethelred and the Danish Canute, and would have given birth to two more, Edward the Confessor and Hardecanute.
If Ethelred showed little interest in Emma, her second marriage was scarcely happier. Canute remained joined in a 'handfast' union (one without the Church's full approval) to Elgiva, his first love and the mother of several of his children.
From her home in Winchester, the Saxon capital, Emma operated as a significant political figure in her own right. Her writings suggest that she was a Danish nationalist who wished to see England joined with Viking Denmark. But, ultimately, it was her great-nephew, William the Conqueror, who would decide the destiny of England in 1066.
Emma's queenship stood at the meeting point of three cultures of the early Middle Ages in England: Saxon, Viking and Norman. This study of her reign, based on contemporary writings and the work of modern scholars, provides a captivating picture of a pious yet brutal era.
 
of Normandy, Emma (I2723)
 
160
Born at Wantage, Berkshire, in 849, Alfred was the fifth son of Aethelwulf, king of the West Saxons. At their father's behest and by mutual agreement, Alfred's elder brothers succeeded to the kingship in turn, rather than endanger the kingdom by passing it to under-age children at a time when the country was threatened by worsening Viking raids from Denmark.

Since the 790s, the Vikings had been using fast mobile armies, numbering thousands of men embarked in shallow-draught longships, to raid the coasts and inland waters of England for plunder. Such raids were evolving into permanent Danish settlemeents; in 867, the Vikings seized York and established their own kingdom in the southern part of Northumbria. The Vikings overcame two other major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, East Anglia and Mercia, and their kings were either tortured to death or fled. Finally, in 870 the Danes attacked the only remaining independent Anglo-Saxon kingdom, Wessex, whose forces were commanded by King Aethelred and his younger brother Alfred. At the battle of Ashdown in 871, Alfred routed the Viking army in a fiercely fought uphill assault. However, further defeats followed for Wessex and Alfred's brother died.

As king of Wessex at the age of 21, Alfred (reigned 871-99) was a strongminded but highly strung battle veteran at the head of remaining resistance to the Vikings in southern England. In early 878, the Danes led by King Guthrum seized Chippenham in Wiltshire in a lightning strike and used it as a secure base from which to devastate Wessex. Local people either surrendered or escaped (Hampshire people fled to the Isle of Wight), and the West Saxons were reduced to hit and run attacks ses seizing provisions when they could. With only his royal bodyguard, a small army of thegns (the king's followers) and Aethelnoth earldorman of Somerset as his ally, Alfred withdrew to the Somerset tidal marshes in which he had probably hunted as a youth. (It was during this time that Alfred, in his preoccupation with the defence of his kingdom, allegedly burned some cakes which he had been asked to look after; the incident was a legend dating from early twelfth century chroniclers.)

A resourceful fighter, Alfred reassessed his strategy and adopted the Danes' tactics by building a fortified base at Athelney in the Somerset marshes and summoning a mobile army of men from Wiltshire, Somerset and part of Hampshire to pursue guerrilla warfare against the Danes. In May 878, Alfred's army defeated the Danes at the battle of Edington. According to his contemporary biographer Bishop Asser, 'Alfred attacked the whole pagan army fighting ferociously in dense order, and by divine will eventually won the victory, made great slaughter among them, and pursued them to their fortress (Chippenham) ... After fourteen days the pagans were brought to the extreme depths of despair by hunger, cold and fear, and they sought peace'. This unexpected victory proved to be the turning point in Wessex's battle for survival.

Realising that he could not drive the Danes out of the rest of England, Alfred concluded peace with them in the treaty of Wedmore. King Guthrum was converted to Christianity with Alfred as godfather and many of the Danes returned to East Anglia where they settled as farmers. In 886, Alfred negotiated a partition treaty with the Danes, in which a frontier was demarcated along the Roman Watling Street and northern and eastern England came under the jurisdiction of the Danes - an area kknown as 'Danelaw'. Alfred therefore gained control of areas of West Mercia and Kent which had been beyond the boundaries of Wessex. To consolidate alliances against the Danes, Alfred married one of his daughters, Aethelflaed, to the ealdorman of Mercia -Alfred himself had married Eahlswith, a Mercian noblewoman - and another daughter, Aelfthryth, to the count of Flanders, a strong naval power at a time when the Vikings were settling in eastern England.

The Danish threat remained, and Alfred reorganised the Wessex defences in recognition that efficient defence and economic prosperity were interdependent. First, he organised his army (the thegns, and the existing militia known as the fyrd) on a rota basis, so he could raise a 'rapid reaction force' to deal with raiders whilst still enabling his thegns and peasants to tend their farms.

Second, Alfred started a building programme of well-defended settlements across southern England. These were fortified market places ('borough' comes from the Old English burh, meaning fortress); by deliberate royal planning, settlers received plots and in return manned the defences in times of war. (Such plots in London under Alfred's rule in the 880s shaped the streetplan which still exists today between Cheapside and the Thames.) This obligation required careful recording in what became known as 'the Burghal Hidage', which gave details of the building and manning of Wessex and Mercian burhs according to their size, the length of their ramparts and the number of men needed to garrison them. Centred round Alfred's royal palace in Winchester, this network of burhs with strongpoints on the main river routes was such that no part of Wessex was more than 20 miles from the refuge of one of these settlements. Together with a navy of new fast ships built on Alfred's orders, southern England now had a defence in depth against Danish raiders.

Alfred's concept of kingship extended beyond the administration of the tribal kingdom of Wessex into a broader context. A religiously devout and pragmatic man who learnt Latin in his late thirties, he recognised that the general deterioration i in learning and religion caused by the Vikings' destruction of monasteries (the centres of the rudimentary education network) had serious implications for rulership. For example, the poor standards in Latin had led to a decline in the use of the charter as an instrument of royal government to disseminate the king's instructions and legislation. In one of his prefaces, Alfred wrote 'so general was its [Latin] decay in England that there were very few on this side of the Humber who could understand their rituals in English or translate a letter from Latin into English ... so few that I cannot remember a single one south of the Thames when I came to the throne.'

To improve literacy, Alfred arranged, and took part in, the translation (by scholars from Mercia) from Latin into Anglo-Saxon of a handful of books he thought it 'most needful for men to know, and to bring it to pass ... if we have the peace, that all the youth now in England ... may be devoted to learning'. These books covered history, philosophy and Gregory the Great's 'Pastoral Care' (a handbook for bishops), and copies of these books were sent to all the bishops of the kingdom. Alfred was patron of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (which was copied and supplemented up to 1154), a patriotic history of the English from the Wessex viewpoint designed to inspire its readers and celebrate Alfred and his monarchy.

Like other West Saxon kings, Alfred established a legal code; he assembled the laws of Offa and other predecessors, and of the kingdoms of Mercia and Kent, adding his own administrative regulations to form a definitive body of Anglo-Saxon law. ' 'I ... collected these together and ordered to be written many of them which our forefathers observed, those which I liked; and many of those which I did not like I rejected with the advice of my councillors ... For I dared not presume to set in writing at all many of my own, because it was unknown to me what would please those who should come after us ... Then I ... showed those to all my councillors, and they then said that they were all pleased to observe them' (Laws of Alfred, c.885-99).

By the 890s, Alfred's charters and coinage (which he had also reformed, extending its minting to the burhs he had founded) referred to him as 'king of the English', and Welsh kings sought alliances with him. Alfred died in 899, aged 50, and was buried in Winchester, the burial place of the West Saxon royal family.

By stopping the Viking advance and consolidating his territorial gains, Alfred had started the process by which his successors eventually extended their power over the other Anglo-Saxon kings; the ultimate unification of Anglo-Saxon England was to be led by Wessex. It is for his valiant defence of his kingdom against a stronger enemy, for securing peace with the Vikings and for his farsighted reforms in the reconstruction of Wessex and beyond, that Alfred - alone of all the English kings and queens - is known as 'the Great'.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great
 
Alfred the Great King of Wessex 871-899 (I2712)
 
161
Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon king (and his father's favourite saint), Edward the Confessor. Edward's parents were renowned for their patronage of the arts (his mother, EleaEleanor of Provence, encouraged Henry III to spend money on the arts, which included the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey and a still-extant magnificent shrine to house the body of Edward the Confessor), and Edward received a disciplined education - reading and writing in Latin and French, with training in the arts, sciences and music.

In 1254, Edward travelled to Spain for an arranged marriage at the age of 15 to 9-year-old Eleanor of Castile. Just before Edward's marriage, Henry III gave him the duchy of Gascony, one of the few remnants of the once vast French possessions of the English Angevin kings. Gascony was part of a package which included parts of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the King's lands in Wales to provide an income for Edward. Edward then spent a year in Gascony, studying its administration.

Edward spent his young adulthood learning harsh lessons from Henry III's failures as a king, culminating in a civil war in which he fought to defend his father. Henry's ill-judged and expensive intervention in Sicilian affairs (lured by the Popee's offer of the Sicilian crown to Henry's younger son) failed, and aroused the anger of powerful barons including Henry's brother-in-law Simon de Montfort. Bankrupt and threatened with excommunication, Henry was forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford in 1258, under which his debts were paid in exchange for substantial reforms; a Great Council of 24, partly nominated by the barons, assumed the functions of the King's Council.

Henry repudiated the Provisions in 1261 and sought the help of the French king Louis IX (later known as St Louis for his piety and other qualities). This was the only time Edward was tempted to side with his charismatic and politically ruthless godfather Simon de Montfort - he supported holding a Parliament in his father's absence.

However, by the time Louis IX decided to side with Henry in the dispute and civil war broke out in England in 1263, Edward had returned to his father's side and became de Montfort's greatest enemy. After winning the battle of Lewes in 1264 (after which Edward became a hostage to ensure his father abided by the terms of the peace), de Montfort summoned the Great Parliament in 1265 - this was the first time cities and burghs sent representatives to the parliament. (Historians differ as to whether de Montfort was an enlightened liberal reformer or an unscrupulous opportunist using any means to advance himself.)

In May 1265, Edward escaped from tight supervision whilst hunting. On 4 August, Edward and his allies outmanoeuvred de Montfort in a savage battle at Evesham; de Montfort predicted his own defeat and death 'let us commend our souls to God, because our bodies are theirs ... they are approaching wisely, they learned this from me.' With the ending of the civil war, Edward worked hard at social and political reconciliation between his father and the rebels, and by 1267 the realm had been pacified.

In April 1270 Parliament agreed an unprecedented levy of one-twentieth of every citizen's goods and possessions to finance Edward's Crusade to the Holy Lands. Edward left England in August 1270 to join the highly respected French king Louis IX oon Crusade. At a time when popes were using the crusading ideal to further their own political ends in Italy and elsewhere, Edward and King Louis were the last crusaders in the medieval tradition of aiming to recover the Holy Lands. Louis died o of the plague in Tunis before Edward's arrival, and the French forces were bought off from pursuing their campaign. Edward decided to continue regardless: 'by the blood of God, though all my fellow soldiers and countrymen desert me, I will enter Acre ... and I will keep my word and my oath to the death'.

Edward arrived in Acre in May 1271 with 1,000 knights; his crusade was to prove an anticlimax. Edward's small force limited him to the relief of Acre and a handful of raids, and divisions amongst the international force of Christian Crusaders led to Edward's compromise truce with the Baibars. In June 1272, Edward survived a murder attempt by an Assassin (an order of Shi'ite Muslims) and left for Sicily later in the year. He was never to return on crusade.

Meanwhile, Henry III died on 16 November 1272. Edward succeeded to the throne without opposition - given his track record in military ability and his proven determination to give peace to the country, enhanced by his magnified exploits on crusadde. In Edward's absence, a proclamation in his name delcared that he had succeeded by hereditary right, and the barons swore allegeiance to him. Edward finally arrived in London in August 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Aged 35, he was a veteran warrior ('the best lance in all the world', according to contemporaries), a leader with energy and vision, and with a formidable temper.

Edward was determined to enforce English kings' claims to primacy in the British Isles. The first part of his reign was dominated by Wales. At that time, Wales consisted of a number of disunited small Welsh princedoms; the South Welsh princes wewere in uneasy alliance with the Marcher lords (feudal earldoms and baronies set up by the Norman kings to protect the English border against Welsh raids) against the Northern Welsh based in the rocky wilds of Gwynedd, under the strong leadership of Llywelyn ap Gruffyd, Prince of Gwynedd. In 1247, under the Treaty of Woodstock, Llywelyn had agreed that he held North Wales in fee to the English king. By 1272, Llywelyn had taken advantage of the English civil wars to consolidate his position, and the Peace of Montgomery (1267) had confirmed his title as Prince of Wales and recognised his conquests.

However, Llywelyn maintained that the rights of his principality were 'entirely separate from the rights' of England; he did not attend Edward's coronation and refused to do homage. Finally, in 1277 Edward decided to fight Llywelyn 'as a rebel aand disturber of the peace', and quickly defeated him. War broke out again in 1282 when Llywelyn joined his brother David in rebellion. Edward's determination, military experience and skilful use of ships brought from England for deployment along the North Welsh coast, drove Llywelyn back into the mountains of North Wales. The death of Llywelyn in a chance battle in 1282 and the subsequent execution of his brother David effectively ended attempts at Welsh independence.

Under the Statute of Wales of 1284, Wales was brought into the English legal framework and the shire system was extended. In the same year, a son was born in Wales to Edward and Queen Eleanor (also named Edward, this future king was proclaimed t the first English Prince of Wales in 1301). The Welsh campaign had produced one of the largest armies ever assembled by an English king - some 15,000 infantry (including 9,000 Welsh and a Gascon contingent); the army was a formidable combinatioion of heavy Anglo-Norman cavalry and Welsh archers, whose longbow skills laid the foundations of later military victories in France such as that at Agincourt. As symbols of his military strength and political authority, Edward spent some £80,0000 on a network of castles and lesser strongholds in North Wales, employing a work-force of up to 3,500 men drawn from all over England. (Some castles, such as Conway and Caernarvon, remain in their ruined layouts today, as examples of fortresses integrated with fortified towns.)

Edward's campaign in Wales was based on his determination to ensure peace and extend royal authority, and it had broad support in England. Edward saw the need to widen support among lesser landowners and the merchants and traders of the towns. The campaigns in Wales, France and Scotland left Edward deeply in debt, and the taxation required to meet those debts meant enrolling national support for his policies.
 
 
To raise money, Edward summoned Parliament - up to 1286 he summoned Parliaments twice a year. (The word 'Parliament' came from the 'parley' or talks which the King had with larger groups of advisers.) In 1295, when money was needed to wage war against Philip of France (who had confiscated the duchy of Gascony), Edward summoned the most comprehensive assembly ever summoned in England. This became known as the Model Parliament, for it represented various estates: barons, clergy, and knights and townspeople. By the end of Edward's reign, Parliament usually contained representatives of all these estates.

Edward used his royal authority to establish the rights of the Crown at the expense of traditional feudal privileges, to promote the uniform administration of justice, to raise income to meet the costs of war and government, and to codify the legal system. In doing so, his methods emphasised the role of Parliament and the common law. With the able help of his Chancellor, Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Edward introduced much new legislation. He began by commissioning a thorough survey of local government (with the results entered into documents known as the Hundred Rolls), which not only defined royal rights and possessions but also revealed administrative abuses.

The First Statute of Westminster (1275) codified 51 existing laws - many originating from Magna Carta - covering areas ranging from extortion by royal officers, lawyers and bailiffs, methods of procedure in civil and criminal cases to freedom of elections. Edward's first Parliament also enacted legislation on wool, England's most important export at the time. At the request of the merchants, Edward was given a customs grant on wool and hides which amounted to nearly £10,000 a year. Edward also obtained income from the licence fees imposed by the Statute of Mortmain (1279), under which gifts of land to the Church (often made to evade death duties) had to have a royal licence.

The Statutes of Gloucester (1278) and Quo Warranto (1290) attempted to define and regulate feudal jurisdictions, which were an obstacle to royal authority and to a uniform system of justice for all; the Statute of Winchester (1285) codified ththe policing system for preserving public order. Other statutes had a long-term effect on land law and on the feudal framework in England. The Second Statute of Westminster (1285) restricted the alienation of land and kept entailed estates within families: tenants were only tenants for life and not able to sell the property to others. The Third Statute of Westminster or Quia Emptores (1290) stopped subinfeudation (in which tenants of land belonging to the King or to barons subcontracted their properties and related feudal services).

Edward's assertion that the King of Scotland owed feudal allegiance to him, and the embittered Anglo-Scottish relations leading to war which followed, were to overshadow the rest of Edward's reign in what was to become known as the 'Great Cause'e'. Under a treaty of 1174, William the Lion of Scotland had become the vassal to Henry II, but in 1189 Richard I had absolved William from his allegiance. Intermarriage between the English and Scottish royal houses promoted peace between the two countries until the premature death of Alexander III in 1286. In 1290, his granddaughter and heiress, Margaret the 'Maid of Norway' (daughter of the King of Norway, she was pledged to be married to Edward's then only surviving son, Edward of Caernarvon), also died. For Edward, this dynastic blow was made worse by the death in the same year of his much-loved wife Eleanor (her body was ceremonially carried from Lincoln to Westminster for burial, and a memorial cross erected at every one of the twelve resting places, including what became known as Charing Cross in London).

In the absence of an obvious heir to the Scottish throne, the disunited Scottish magnates invited Edward to determine the dispute. In order to gain acceptance of his authority in reaching a verdict, Edward sought and obtained recognition from thhe rival claimants that he had the 'sovereign lordship of Scotland and the right to determine our several pretensions'. In November 1292, Edward and his 104 assessors gave the whole kingdom to John Balliol or Baliol as the claimant closest to the royal line; Balliol duly swore loyalty to Edward and was crowned at Scone.

John Balliol's position proved difficult. Edward insisted that Scotland was not independent and he, as sovereign lord, had the right to hear in England appeals against Balliol's judgements in Scotland. In 1294, Balliol lost authority amongst Scottish magnates by going to Westminster after receiving a summons from Edward; the magnates decided to seek allies in France and concluded the 'Auld Alliance' with France (then at war with England over the duchy of Gascony) - an alliance which was to influence Scottish history for the next 300 years. In March 1296, having failed to negotiate a settlement, the English led by Edward sacked the city of Berwick near the River Tweed. Balliol formally renounced his homage to Edward in April 1296, speaking of 'grievous and intolerable injuries ... for instance by summoning us outside our realm ... as your own whim dictated ... and so ... we renounce the fealty and homage which we have done to you'. Pausing to design and start the rebuilding of Berwick as the financial capital of the country, Edward's forces overran remaining Scottish resistance. Scots leaders were taken hostage, and Edinburgh Castle, amongst others, was seized. Balliol surrendered his realm and spent the rest of his life in exile in England and Normandy.

Having humiliated Balliol, Edward's insensitive policies in Scotland continued: he appointed a trio of Englishmen to run the country. Edward had the Stone of Scone - also known as the Stone of Destiny - on which Scottish sovereigns had been crowned removed to London and subsequently placed in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey (where it remained until it was returned to Scotland in 1996). Edward never built stone castles on strategic sites in Scotland, as he had done so successfully in Wales - possibly because he did not have the funds for another ambitious castle-building programme.

By 1297, Edward was facing the biggest crisis in his reign, and his commitments outweighed his resources. Chronic debts were being incurred by wars against France, in Flanders, Gascony and Wales as well as Scotland; the clergy were refusing to pay their share of the costs, with the Archbishop of Canterbury threatening excommunication; Parliament was reluctant to contribute to Edward's expensive and unsuccessful military policies; the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk refused to serve in Gascony, and the barons presented a formal statement of their grievances. In the end, Edward was forced to reconfirm the Charters (including Magna Carta) to obtain the money he required; the Archbishop was eventually suspended in 1306 by the new Gascon Pope Clement V; a truce was declared with France in 1297, followed by a peace treaty in 1303 under which the French king restored the duchy of Gascony to Edward.

In Scotland, Edward pursued a series of campaigns from 1298 onwards. William Wallace had risen in Balliol's name and recovered most of Scotland, before being defeated by Edward at the battle of Falkirk in 1298. (Wallace escaped, only to be captutured in 1305, allegedly by the treachery of a fellow Scot and taken to London, where he was executed.) In 1304, Edward summoned a full Parliament (which elected Scottish representatives also attended), in which arrangements for the settlement of Scotland were made. The new government in Scotland featured a Council, which included Robert the Bruce. Bruce unexpectedly rebelled in 1306 by killing a fellow counsellor and was crowned king of Scotland at Scone. Despite his failing health, Edward was carried north to pursue another campaign, but he died en route at Burgh on Sands on 7 July 1307 aged 68.

According to chroniclers, Edward requested that his bones should be carried on Scottish campaigns and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. However, Edward was buried at Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus (Hammer of the Scots) and Pactum serva (Keep troth). Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Exchequer paid to keep candles burning 'round the body of the Lord Edward, formerly King of England, of famous memory'.

See http://www.castlewales.com/edward.html
http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon30.html
 
Edward I King of England 1272-1307 (I2688)
 
162
Carlo was one of two Italian engineers who founded Transfield, the large construction company. When it was divided between the two families in the early 1990s, the Salteri family created the Tenix group (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenix)

Carlo appeared regularly in the top 15 richest people in Australia.

From Business Review Weekly, 18 May 2001, list of the richest 200 Australians (http://brw.com.au/lists/Richlist/20010518/article/10004.asp):
Carlo Salteri
Shipbuilding, defence industries. Sydney 
Married twice, four children
The Salteri family would have been relieved that the split in its former Transfield partners, the Belgiorno-Nettis family, took place after the two families had gone their separate ways. The Salteri family has been careful not to comment on the court case that exposed a rift in its former partners of more than 40 years. Carlo Salteri met his eventual partner, Franco Belgiorno-Nettis, at Rome airport in 1951, when both were young engineers on their way to Australia to work for the same employer. Five years later, they established the construction company Transfield, which grew to become one of Australia's most successful contractors before the 1997 split from which the Salteris emerged with the defence business, renamed Tenix. It had sales in 1999-2000 of just under $950 million, but might struggle to sustain turnover at these levels this year with the sale late last year of aviation subsidiary Hawker de Havilland to Boeing, just two years after acquiring the operation. The loss of its $160 million turnover will only partly be made up by a full-year contribution from utilities engineering and the maintenance firm Enetech, acquired in late 1999, and the purchase last year from Vision Systems of its airborne-mapping business and a high-technology defence security and fire-protection operation. The backbone of the Tenix operation, the Williamstown shipyard, in Melbourne, is also winding down and last year was forced to make 250 staff redundant, with the Anzac frigate project due to end in 2006. Salteri is still cashed up following the sale of Hawker de Havilland, but the family will be anxiously awaiting word of government plans for a new air-warfare destroyer outlined in the defence white paper released in December [2000].

Transfield co-founder Carlo Salteri dies
October 13, 2010
AAP
[published in several newspapers]
Prominent businessman Carlo Salteri, co-founder of Transfield and founder of Tenix, has died.
Mr Salteri passed away on Tuesday night at the Mater Hospital in Sydney after a short illness, Tenix said in a statement. He was 89.
He migrated to Australia from Italy in 1951 with his wife Renata and young family.
The mechanical engineer, together with his future business partner Franco Belgiorno-Nettis, 25 men and a priest were part of a team contracted by an Italian firm to build an electricity transmission line from near Port Kembla on NSW's south coast to Homebush Bay in Sydney.
In 1956, following the end of the contract, Mr Salteri and Mr Belgiorno-Nettis chose to stay in Australia rather than return to Italy and formed Transfield.
It was the beginning of a great partnership between the two men that lasted 40 years, growing Transfield into one of Australia's largest companies.
Notable achievements under their leadership included the construction of the Gateway Bridge in Brisbane and the Sydney Harbour Tunnel, as well as numerous major infrastructure projects across the country.
The pair stood down as joint managing directors in 1989 in favour of their eldest sons, Paul Salteri and Marco Belgiorno-Zegna.
Seven years later Transfield was demerged, with Tenix formed in August 1997.
As part of the separation, the Salteri family took control of the defence interests of Transfield, and Mr Salteri with his two sons Paul and Robert set out to build Tenix into Australia's largest defence contractor.
Tenix sold its defence business to BAE in June 2008.
Tenix has since turned its focus on building its infrastructure and parking and traffic businesses across Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific and the US.
Mr Salteri continued to be an active Tenix director until his death.
Tenix chairman Paul Salteri said his father would be greatly missed.
"Dad had great faith and was at peace in the knowledge that he had achieved much in his nearly 90 years," he said.
"He was a loving husband to Renata, and then Roslyn, father to Paul, Mary, Adriana and Robert and their partners, `nonno' to his 11 grandchildren and their partners and great-nonno to Matthew.
"We will miss his love, his guidance and wisdom and above all his enthusiasm for life."
Mr Salteri requested a private family funeral, but a memorial service is expected to be held at a later date.
 
Salteri, Carlo AC (I865)
 
163 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Royes, Captain T.J. (I4468)
 
164
Convicted at the Lincoln Assizes 16 March 1789 and received a 14 years sentence. He sailed on the ‘Matilda’, a 460 tons vessel which was built at the French yards in 1779. Mathew Weatherhead was the Master and the ‘Matilda’ sailed from Portsmouth 27 March 1791 with a compliment of 230 male Convicts. She broke the record set by the ‘Mary Ann’ by making the passage from England to Port Jackson in 127 days – 16 days faster than her rival. It is thought that many of the 25 deaths suffered by the Convicts were due to the leaky state of the ship. Many were old and infirmed at the time they embarked. ‘Matilda’ arrived on 1 August 1791.
 
Bailey, William (I1868)
 
165
Daughter of John Brooke of Brooke Street Ash.
She was buried in Ash church 9 June 1560
She is recorded in Knights visitation 1619 as wife of Stephen Hougham and after the death of her nephew, she or her descendants become heirs of the Brooke coat of Arms as he is the last male Brooke. The same thing is explained by the Brook wills. John Brook, her father, was father of John Brooke who was married to her husband's sister Joan. John and Joan had a son John who died 16 Jan 1583 will proved 7 Feb 1583. Thus from 1583 the Brooke coat is quartered with Hougham. The son of Benetta (Michael, died in Dec 1583) entitled to the quartering as were all his descendants.
Her will was proved 14 Oct 1560 she names herself in it "Benedict Huffam, widow" and desires to be buried near her husband in Ash church. She mentions Michael and Richard, Joan, Margaret a nd Elizabeth Solly, her daughters children and Bennet, Daughter of Michael
 
Brooke, Bennetta (I2107)
 
166
Duke of Normandy (1027-1035)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_the_Magnificent

Robert was the second son of Richard II, Duke of Normandy 1027-1035, by his wife Judith, daughter of Conan le Tort (the Crooked), Count of Rennes, and sister of the half blood to Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany; and it was during the lifetime of hiis father, and while Robert was only Count of the Hiemois, and it may be in his nonage that he first saw Herleve, Harlett, or Arlot (for it is written in all manner of ways), daughter of a burgess of Falaise, an accident the results of which were the subjugation of England and the succession of a line of kings unsurpassed for valour and power by the greatest sovereigns in Europe.

Contributed to the restoration of Henri, King of France, to his throne, and received from the gratitude of that monarch, the Vexin, as an additional to his patrimonial domains. In the 8th year of his reign, curiosity or devotion induced him to undertake a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, where the fatigue of the journey and the heat of the climate so impaired his consitution he died on his way home. Some sources call him Robert I the Magnificent. -http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/PLANTAGENET.htm

ROBERT I. (d. 1035), called Robert the Devil, was the younger son of Richard II., duke of Normandy (d. 1026), who bequeathed to him the county of Exmes. In 1028 he succeeded his brother, Richard III., whom he was accused of poisoning, as duke of Normandy. His time was mainly spent in fighting against his rebellious vassals. At his court Robert sheltered the exiled English princes, Edward, afterwards King Edward the Confessor, and his brother Alfred, and fitted out a fleet for the purpose of restoring them to their inheritance, but this was scattered by a storm. When returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he died at Nicaea on the 22nd of July 1035. His successor as duke was his natural son, William the Conqueror, afterwards king of England. In addition to winning for him his surname, Robert's strength and ferocity afforded material for many stories and legends, and he is the subject of several poems and romances. -http://51.1911encyclopedia.org/R/RO/ROBERT_2_DUKES_OF_NORMANDY_.htm
 
Robert I Duke of Normandy (I2774)
 
167
Duke of Normandy (1087-1106)

ROBERT II. (c. 1054-1134) was the eldest son of William the Conqueror. Although recognized in boyhood as his father's successor in Normandy, he was soon dissatisfied with his position, and about 1078, following a quarrel between his brothers and himself, he revolted. He was obliged to fly from his own country, but after a period of exile he returned, raised some troops, and began to harry the duchy, wounding his father during a skirmish at Gerberoi early in 1079. He was, however, quickly forgiven, and passed two or three years in England and in Normandy until 1083, when he entered upon a second term of exile. When the Conqueror died in September 1087 Robert became duke of Normandy, but not king of England; although he received offers of help, he took no serious steps to displace his younger brother, King William II. In Normandy his rule was weak and irresolute. He lost the county of Maine, which for some years had been united with Normandy, and he was soon at variance with his brothers, the younger of whom, Henry, he seized and put into prison. In 1089 his duchy was invaded by William II., who soon made peace with Robert, the two agreeing to dispossess their brother Henry of his lands in Normandy. This peace lasted until 1094, when occasions of difference again arose and another struggle began, Robert being aided by King Philip I. of France.

This warfare ended in 1096, when Robert set out on the first crusade, having raised money for this purpose by pledging his duchy to William for 10,000 marks. With his followers he journeyed to Constantinople; then he took part in the siege of Nicaea, the battle of Dorylaeum, and the famous battle under the walls of Antioch in June 1098. He shared in the siege of Jerusalem and other exploits of the crusade, while one account says that he was offered and refused the crown of the new Latin kingdom. Having won a great reputation both for valour and for generosity, the duke left Palestine and arrived in Normandy in September 1100.

William Rufus died while Robert was on his homeward way, and in Italy the Norman duke was greeted as king of England; but when he reached Normandy he learned that the English throne was already in the possession of Henry I. In July 1102 he crosssed over to England, intending to contest his brother's title, but Henry met him near Alton, in Hampshire, and an amicable arrangement was made between them. Having received presents and the promise of a pension, Robert went quietly home. But the fraternal strife was not allayed. Henry had interests in Normandy in addition to the county of Evreux, which Robert ceded to him about 1102. Visits were exchanged, but no lasting peace was made, and in 1106 the English king crossed over to Norormandy, where Robert was in great extremities. At the battle of Tinchebrai, fought on the 28th of September 1106, Henry took his brother prisoner and carried him to England. For twenty-eight years the unfortunate duke was a captive, first in the Tower of London, and later in the castles of Devizes and Cardiff, but the evidence goes to show that he was not treated with cruelty. He died probably at Cardiff on the loth of February 1134. Robert had a son, William, called the Clito, and several natural children. He was called Curthose, and also Gambaron, his figure being short and stout. Although wanting in decision of character, he was a skilled and able warrior, and the chroniclers tell many stories, some of them obviously legendary, of his exploits in the Holy Land.

The chief sources for the life of Robert II. are Ordericus Vitalis, William of Malmesbury and other chroniclers of the time. See E. A. Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest (1870-76), and The Reign of Rufus (1882). -http://51.1911encyclopedia.org/R/RO/ROBERT_2_DUKES_OF_NORMANDY_.htm
 
Courtheuse, Robert II Duke of Normandy (I3621)
 
168
Duke of Normandy 1035-1087
King of England 1066-1087

Encyclopedia Britannica: Article "William I":

by name William The Conqueror, or The Bastard, or William Of Normandy,  French Guillaume Le Conquérant, or Le Bâtard, or Guillaume De Normandie  duke of Normandy (as William II) from 1035 and king of England from 1066, one of the greatest soldiers and rulers of the Middle Ages. He made himself the mightiest feudal lord in France and then changed the course of England's history by his conquest of that country.

Early years

William was the elder of two children of Robert I of Normandy and his concubine Herleva, or Arlette, the daughter of a burgher from the town of Falaise. In 1035 Robert died when returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and William, his only sonn, whom he had nominated as his heir before his departure, was accepted as duke by the Norman magnates and his feudal overlord, King Henry I of France. William and his friends had to overcome enormous obstacles. His illegitimacy (he was generally known as the Bastard) was a handicap, and he had to survive the collapse of law and order that accompanied his accession as a child.

Three of William's guardians died violent deaths before he grew up, and his tutor was murdered. His father's kin were of little help; most of them thought that they stood to gain by the boy's death. But his mother managed to protect William through the most dangerous period. These early difficulties probably contributed to his strength of purpose and his dislike of lawlessness and misrule.

Ruler of Normandy.

By 1042, when William reached his 15th year, was knighted, and began to play a personal part in the affairs of his duchy, the worst was over. But his attempts to recover rights lost during the anarchy and to bring disobedient vassals and servantants to heel inevitably led to trouble. From 1046 until 1055 he dealt with a series of baronial rebellions, mostly led by kinsmen. Occasionally he was in great danger and had to rely on Henry of France for help. In 1047 Henry and William defeated a coalition of Norman rebels at Val-ès-Dunes, southeast of Caen. It was in these years that William learned to fight and rule.

William soon learned to control his youthful recklessness. He was always ready to take calculated risks on campaign and, most important, to fight a battle. But he was not a chivalrous or flamboyant commander. His plans were simple, his methods direct, and he exploited ruthlessly any advantage gained. If he found himself at a disadvantage, he withdrew immediately. He showed the same qualities in his government. He never lost sight of his aim to recover lost ducal rights and revenues, annd, although he developed no theory of government or great interest in administrative techniques, he was always prepared to improvise and experiment. He seems to have lived a moral life by the standards of the time, and he acquired an interest iin the welfare of the Norman church. He made his half brother, Odo, bishop of Bayeux in 1049 at the age of about 16, and Odo managed to combine the roles of nobleman and prelate in a way that did not greatly shock contemporaries. But William also welcomed foreign monks and scholars to Normandy. Lanfranc of Pavia, a famous master of the liberal arts, who entered the monastery of Bec about 1042, was made abbot of Caen in 1063.

According to a brief description of William's person by an anonymous author, who borrowed extensively from Einhard's Life of Charlemagne, he was just above average height and had a robust, thick-set body. Though he was always sparing of food and drink, he became fat in later life. He had a rough bass voice and was a good and ready speaker. Writers of the next generation agree that he was exceptionally strong and vigorous. William was an out-of-doors man, a hunter and soldier, fierce and despotic, generally feared; uneducated, he had few graces but was intelligent and shrewd and soon obtained the respect of his rivals.

New alliances.

After 1047 William began to take part in events outside his duchy. In support of his lord, King Henry, and in pursuit of an ambition to strengthen his southern frontier and expand into Maine, he fought a series of campaigns against Geoffrey Martrtel, count of Anjou. But in 1052 Henry and Geoffrey made peace, there was a serious rebellion in eastern Normandy, and, until 1054 William was again in serious danger. During this period he conducted important negotiations with his cousin Edward the Confessor, king of England, and took a wife.

Norman interest in Anglo-Saxon England derived from an alliance made in 1002, when King Ethelred II of England married Emma, the sister of Count Richard II, William's grandfather. Two of her sons, William's cousins once removed, had reigned in turn in England, Hardecanute (1040–42) and Edward the Confessor (1042–66). William had met Edward during that prince's exile on the Continent and may well have given him some support when he returned to England in 1041. In that year Edward was about 36 and William 14. It is clear that William expected some sort of reward from Edward and, when Edward's marriage proved unfruitful, began to develop an ambition to become his kinsman's heir. Edward probably at times encouraged William's hopes. His childlessness was a diplomatic asset.

In 1049 William negotiated with Baldwin V of Flanders for the hand of his daughter, Matilda. Baldwin, an imperial vassal with a distinguished lineage, was in rebellion against the Western emperor, Henry III, and in desperate need of allies. ThThe proposed marriage was condemned as incestuous (William and Matilda were evidently related in some way) by the Emperor's friend, Pope Leo IX, at the Council of Reims in October 1049; but so anxious were the parties for the alliance that beforore the end of 1053, possibly in 1052, the wedding took place. In 1059 William was reconciled to the papacy, and as penance the disobedient pair built two monasteries at Caen. Four sons were born to William and Matilda: Robert (the future duke of Normandy), Richard (who died young), William Rufus (the Conqueror's successor in England), and Henry (Rufus' successor). Among the daughters was Adela, who was the mother of Stephen, king of England.

Edward the Confessor was supporting the Emperor, and it is possible that William used his new alliance with Flanders to put pressure on Edward and extort an acknowledgment that he was the English king's heir. At all events, Edward seems to have made some sort of promise to William in 1051, while Tostig, son of the greatest nobleman in England, Earl Godwine, married Baldwin's half sister. The immediate purpose of this tripartite alliance was to improve the security of each of the parties. If William secured a declaration that he was Edward's heir, he was also looking very far ahead.

Between 1054 and 1060 William held his own against an alliance between King Henry I and Geoffrey Martel of Anjou. Both men died in 1060 and were succeeded by weaker rulers. As a result, in 1063 William was able to conquer Maine. In 1064 or 1065 Edward sent his brother-in-law, Harold, earl of Wessex, Godwine's son and successor, on an embassy to Normandy. William took him on a campaign into Brittany, and in connection with this Harold swore an oath in which, according to Norman writers, he renewed Edward's bequest of the throne to William and promised to support it.

When Edward died childless on Jan. 5, 1066, Harold was accepted as king by the English magnates, and William decided on war. Others, however, moved more quickly. In May Tostig, Harold's exiled brother, raided England, and in September he joinened the invasion forces of Harald III Hardraade, king of Norway, off the Northumbrian coast. William assembled a fleet, recruited an army, and gathered his forces in August at the mouth of the Dives River. It is likely that he originally intended to sail due north and invade England by way of the Isle of Wight and Southampton Water. Such a plan would give him an offshore base and interior lines. But adverse winds detained his fleet in harbour for a month, and in September a westerly gale drove his ships up-Channel.


The Battle of Hastings.

William regrouped his forces at Saint-Valéry on the Somme. He had suffered a costly delay, some naval losses, and a drop in the morale of his troops. On September 27, after cold and rainy weather, the wind backed south. William embarked his army and set sail for the southeast coast of England. The following morning he landed, took the unresisting towns of Pevensey and Hastings, and began to organize a bridgehead with between 4,000 and 7,000 cavalry and infantry.

William's forces were in a narrow coastal strip, hemmed in by the great forest of Andred, and, although this corridor was easily defensible, it was not much of a base for the conquest of England. The campaigning season was almost past, and when William received news of his opponent it was not reassuring. On September 25 Harold had defeated and slain Tostig and Harald Hardraade at Stamford Bridge, near York, and was retracing his steps to meet the new invader. On October 13, when Haroold emerged from the forest, William was taken by surprise. But the hour was too late for Harold to push on to Hastings, and he took up a defensive position. Early the next day William went out to give battle. He attacked the English phalanx with archers and cavalry but saw his army almost driven from the field. He rallied the fugitives, however, and brought them back into the fight and in the end wore down his opponents. Harold's brothers were killed early in the battle. Toward nightfall the King himself fell and the English gave up. William's coolness and tenacity secured him victory in this fateful battle, and he then moved against possible centres of resistance so quickly that he prevented a new leader from emerging. On Christmas Day 1066 he was crowned king in Westminster Abbey. In a formal sense the Norman Conquest of England had taken place.

King of England

William was already an experienced ruler. In Normandy he had replaced disloyal nobles and ducal servants with his own friends, limited private warfare, and recovered usurped ducal rights, defining the feudal duties of his vassals. The Norman church flourished under his rule. He wanted a church free of corruption but subordinate to him. He would not tolerate opposition from bishops and abbots or interference from the papacy. He presided over church synods and reinforced ecclesiastical ddiscipline with his own. In supporting Lanfranc, prior of Bec, against Berengar of Tours in their dispute over the doctrine of the Eucharist, he found himself on the side of orthodoxy. He was never guilty of the selling of church office (simony). He disapproved of clerical marriage. At the same time he was a stern and sometimes rough master, swayed by political necessities, and he was not generous to the church with his own property. The reformer Lanfranc was one of his advisers; but perhaps even more to his taste were the worldly and soldierly bishops Odo of Bayeux and Geoffrey of Coutances.

William left England early in 1067 but had to return in December because of English unrest. The English rebellions that began in 1067 reached their peak in 1069 and were finally quelled in 1071. They completed the ruin of the highest English aristocracy and gave William a distaste for his newly conquered kingdom. Since his position on the Continent was deteriorating, he wanted to solve English problems as cheaply as possible. To secure England's frontiers, he invaded Scotland in 1072 and Wales in 1081 and created special defensive "marcher" counties along the Scottish and Welsh borders.

In the last 15 years of his life he was more often in Normandy than in England, and there were five years, possibly seven, in which he did not visit the kingdom at all. He retained most of the greatest Anglo-Norman barons with him in Normandy anand confided the government of England to bishops, trusting especially his old friend Lanfranc, whom he made archbishop of Canterbury. Much concerned that the natives should not be unnecessarily disturbed, he allowed them to retain their own laws and courts.

William returned to England only when it was absolutely necessary: in 1075 to deal with the aftermath of a rebellion by Roger, earl of Hereford, and Ralf, earl of Norfolk, which was made more dangerous by the intervention of a Danish fleet; and in 1082 to arrest and imprison his half brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux and earl of Kent, who was planning to take an army to Italy, perhaps to make himself pope. In the spring of 1082 William had his son Henry knighted, and in August at Salisbury he took oaths of fealty from all the important landowners in England, whosoever's vassals they might be. In 1085 he returned with a large army to meet the threat of an invasion by Canute IV (Canute the Holy) of Denmark. When this came to nothing owing to Canute's death in 1086, William ordered an economic and tenurial survey to be made of the kingdom, the results of which are summarized in the two volumes of Domesday Book.

William was preoccupied with the frontiers of Normandy. The danger spots were in Maine and the Vexin on the Seine, where Normandy bordered on the French royal demesne. After 1066 William's continental neighbours became more powerful and even more hostile. In 1068 Fulk the Surly succeeded to Anjou and in 1071 Robert the Frisian to Flanders. Philip I of France allied with Robert and Robert with the Danish king, Canute IV. There was also the problem of William's heir apparent, Robert Curtthose, who, given no appanage and seemingly kept short of money, left Normandy in 1077 and intrigued with his father's enemies. In 1081 William made a compromise with Fulk in the treaty of Blancheland: Robert Curthose was to be count of Maine bubut as a vassal of the count of Anjou. The eastern part of the Vexin, the county of Mantes, had fallen completely into King Philip's hands in 1077 when William had been busy with Maine. In 1087 William demanded from Philip the return of the townwns of Chaumont, Mantes, and Pontoise. In July he entered Mantes by surprise, but while the town burned he suffered some injury from which he never recovered. He was thwarted at the very moment when he seemed about to enforce his last outstanding territorial claim.


Death

William was taken to a suburb of Rouen, where he lay dying for five weeks. He had the assistance of some of his bishops and doctors, and in attendance were his half brother Robert, count of Mortain, and his younger sons, William Rufus and Henry. Robert Curthose was with the King of France. It had probably been his intention that Robert, as was the custom, should succeed to the whole inheritance. In the circumstances he was tempted to make the loyal Rufus his sole heir. In the end he c compromised: Normandy and Maine went to Robert and England to Rufus. Henry was given great treasure with which he could purchase an appanage. William died at daybreak on September 9, in his 60th year, and was buried in rather unseemly fashion in St. Stephen's Church, which he had built at Caen.

Additional reading

David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (1964); and Frank Barlow, William I and the Norman Conquest (1965), are the definitive biographies. Earlier works still of value are E.A. Freeman, The History of the Norman Conquest of England, vol. 1–2–2, 2nd ed. (1870); 3–5, 1st ed. (1869–75); and F.M. Stenton, William the Conqueror and the Rule of the Normans (1908, revised 1967). Among the standard textbooks on William and the Norman Conquest of England are F.M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1943); and Frank Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042–1216 (1955). There is a vast literature on the Conquest. A useful introduction is provided by Dorothy Whitelock et al., The Norman Conquest: Its Setting and Impact (1966); and C. Warren Hollister (ed.), The Impact of the Norman Conquest (1969).

"William I" Encyclopædia Britannica  from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

[Accessed September 11, 2004].

See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror
 
William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, King of England (I2875)
 
169
Duke of Normandy 1106-1135
King of England 1100-1135

Henry I belonged to the Norman Dynasty. Born in 1068, he ascended to the throne in 1100 and died in 1135. He was preceded as monarch by William II and was succeeded by Stephen.

The younger son of William the Conquerer and Matilda, he was born at Selby in Yorkshire. He succeeded his brotherWilliam II and strengthened his position by marrying Eadgyth (known as Matilda), daughter of Malcolm, king of Scotland, and of Margaret, granddaughter of Edmund Ironside.

Henry's elder brother Robert was persuaded to assert his claims to the throne. Overwhelmingly defeated at Tinchebrai in 1106, Robert was imprisoned in Cardiff Castle, and Normandy was united to England. Henry married his daughter Matilda to Emperor Henry V, gained over the Count of Anjou, and defeated the French king at Bremule in 1119.

Henry's only son, William, was drowned in 1120 in the White Ship.. Henry died suddenly at Angers in Normandy and was buried at Reading.
[http://www.2hwy.com/eg/h/he1.htm]

Henry I (1100–35)

A good politician and administrator, Henry I was the ablest of the Conqueror's sons. At his coronation on Aug. 5, 1100, he issued a charter intended to win the support of the nation. This propaganda document, in which Henry promised to give up many practices of the past, demonstrates how oppressive Norman government had become. Henry promised not to exploit church vacancies, as his brother had done, and guaranteed that reliefs, sums paid by feudal vassals when they took over their fathers' estates, would be “just and legitimate.” He also promised to return to the laws of Edward the Confessor, though this cannot have been intended literally.

Following the suppression of rebellion in England, the conquest of Normandy was an important priority for Henry. By 1105 he took the offensive, and in September 1106 he won a decisive battle at Tinchebray that gave him control of the whole of Noormandy. Robert was captured and was to spend the rest of his 80 years in castle dungeons. His son, William Clito, escaped and remained until his death in 1128 a thorn in Henry's flesh. Success in Normandy was followed by wars against Louis VI o of France, but by 1120 Henry was everywhere successful in both diplomacy and war. He had arranged a marriage for his only legitimate son, William, to Matilda, daughter of Fulk of Anjou, and had received Fulk's homage for Maine. Pope Calixtus II, his cousin, gave him full support for his control of Normandy on condition that his son William should do homage to the French king.

Relations with the church had not always been easy. Henry had inherited from William II a quarrel with the church that became part of the Europe-wide Investiture Controversy. After Lanfranc's death William had delayed appointing a successor, presumably for the privilege of exploiting the resources of the archbishopric. After four years, during a bout of illness, he appointed Anselm of Bec, one of the great scholars of his time (1093). Anselm did homage for his temporalities, but whetheer or not he was ever invested with the symbols of spiritual office by the king is not clear. Papal confirmation was complicated by the fact that there were two claimants to the papal throne. Anselm refused to accept a decision made by the king's supporters and insisted on receiving his pallium from Urban II, a reform pope in the tradition of Gregory VII, rather than from the imperial nominee, Clement III. Conflict between king and archbishop flared up again in 1097 over what William considered to be an inadequate Canterbury contingent for his Welsh war. The upshot was that Anselm went into exile until William's death. At Rome he heard new papal decrees against lay investiture.

Anselm supported Henry's bid for the throne and returned from exile in 1100. Almost immediately he quarreled with Henry when the king asked him to do homage and to receive his archbishopric from his hands. After various ineffective appeals to Rome, Anselm again went into exile. A compromise was finally arranged in 1107, when it was agreed that the king would surrender investiture with the symbols of spiritual office in return for an agreement that he should supervise the election of the archbishop and take homage for the temporalities before investiture with the spiritual symbols took place. It was said that the concession cost the king “a little, perhaps, of his royal dignity, but nothing of his power to enthrone anyone he pleased.”

Henry continued and extended the administrative work of his father. His frequent absences from England prompted the development of a system that could operate effectively in his absence, under the guidance of such men as Roger, bishop of Salisbury. The exchequer was developed as a department of government dealing with royal revenues, and the first record of the sheriffs' regular accounting at the exchequer, or Pipe Roll, to survive is that of 1129–30. Justices with wide-ranging commissions were sent out into the shires to reinforce local administration and to inquire into crown pleas, royal revenues, and other matters of interest and profit for the king. Henry's government was highly efficient, but it was also harsh and demanding.

During the last 15 years of his reign the succession was a major issue. William, Henry's only legitimate son, was drowned in 1120, leaving Henry's daughter Matilda, wife of the German emperor Henry V, as heir. When Henry V died in 1125, Matildlda returned to England. Henry I persuaded his barons to swear an oath in her support but did not consult them over her second marriage to Geoffrey of Anjou, who at 14 was 11 years her junior. Within a year Geoffrey repudiated Matilda, but during a temporary reconciliation, Matilda and Geoffrey had three children.

Henry was a skilled politician, adept at using the levers of patronage. Men such as Geoffrey de Clinton, the royal chamberlain, owed much to the favours they received from the king, and they served him well in return. There was tension between the established nobility and the “new men” raised to high office by the king, but Henry maintained control with great effect and distributed favours evenhandedly. In England his rule, particularly when seen in retrospect, was characterized by peace, order, and justice. He died, probably of a heart attack, on Dec. 1, 1135.

- United Kingdom. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=44775
 
Henry I King of England, Duke of Normandy (I3620)
 
170
Early Life
The king's youngest son, John was left out of Henry's original division of territory among his sons and was nicknamed John Lackland. He was, however, his father's favorite, and despite the opposition of his brothers (whose rebellion of 1173–74 was provoked by Henry's plans for John), he later received scattered possessions in England and France and the lordship of Ireland. His brief expedition to Ireland in 1185 was badly mismanaged.

Under Richard I
John deserted his dying father in 1189 and joined the rebellion of his brother Richard, who succeeded to the throne as Richard I in the same year. The new king generously conferred lands and titles on John. After Richard's departure on the Third Crusade, John led a rebellion against the chancellor, William ofLongchamp, had himself acknowledged (1191) temporary ruler and heir to the throne, and conspired with Philip II of France to supplant Richard on the throne. This plot was successfully thwarted by those loyal to Richard, including the queen mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard pardoned John's treachery.

Reign
Early Conflicts
On Richard's death, John ascended the English throne to the exclusion of his nephew, Arthur I of Brittany. The supporters of Arthur, aided by King Philip, began a formidable revolt in France. At this time John alienated public opinion in England by divorcing his first wife, Isabel of Gloucester, and made enemies in France by marrying Isabel of Angoulême, who had been betrothed to Hugh de Lusignan. In 1202, Arthur was defeated and captured, and it is thought that John murdered him in 1203. Philip continued the war and gradually gained ground until by 1206 he was in control of Normandy, Anjou, Brittany, Maine, and Touraine. John had lost all his French dominions except Aquitaine and a part of Poitou, which was a critical factor in his subsequent unpopularity.
The death (1205) of John's chancellor, Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury, not only removed a moderating influence on the king but precipitated a crisis with the English church. John refused (1206) to accept the election of Stephen Langton as Walter's successor at Canterbury, and as a result Pope Innocent III placed (1208) England under interdict and excommunicated (1209) the king. The quarrel continued until 1213 when John, threatened by the danger of a French invasion and by increasing disaffection among the English barons, surrendered his kingdom to the pope and received it back as a papal fief.

The Magna Carta
John's submission to the pope improved his situation. Now backed by the pope, he formed an expedition to wage war on Philip in Poitou. However, while John was at La Rochelle, his allies, Holy Roman EmperorOtto IV (his nephew) and the count of FlFlanders, were decisively beaten by Philip at Bouvines in 1214. John had resorted to all means to secure men and money for his Poitou campaign, and after returning home he attempted to collect scutage from the barons who had refused to aid him on the expedition.
Abuses of feudal customs and extortion of money from the barons and the towns, not only by John but by Henry II and Richard I, had aroused intense opposition, which increased in John's unfortunate reign. The barons now rose in overwhelming force against the king, and John in capitulation set his seal on theMagna Carta at Runnymede in June, 1215. Thus, the most famous document of English constitutional history was the fruit of predominantly baronial force.
John, supported by the pope, gathered forces and renewed the struggle with the barons, who sought the aid of Prince Louis of France (later Louis VIII). In the midst of this campaign John died, and his son, Henry III, was left to carry on the royal cause.

Character and Influence
John, though often cruel and treacherous, was an excellent administrator, much concerned with rendering justice among his subjects. The basic cause of his conflicts with the barons was not that he was an innovator in trying to wield an absolute royal power, but that in so doing he ignored and contravened the traditional feudal relationship between the crown and the nobility. The modern hostile picture of John is primarily the work of subsequent chroniclers, mainly Roger of Wendover and Matthew of Paris.
 
Bibliography
See biographies by K. Margate (1902, repr. 1970), J. T. Appleby (1958), W. L. Warren (1961, rev. ed. 1978), J. C. Holt (1963), and A. Lloyd (1972); A. L. Poole, From Domesday Book to Magna Carta, 1087–1216(2d ed. 1955); D. T. Curren-Aquino, ed., King John: New Perspectives (1988). King John is the central character in Shakespeare play of the same name.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2003 Columbia University Press.
 
John Duke of Normandy & King of England (1199-1216) (I2692)
 
171
Edgar, king in Mercia and the Danelaw from 957, succeeded his brother as king of the English on Edwy's death in 959 - a death which probably prevented civil war breaking out between the two brothers. Edgar was a firm and capable ruler whose power was acknowledged by other rulers in Britain, as well as by Welsh and Scottish kings. Edgar's late coronation in 973 at Bath was the first to be recorded in some detail; his queen Aelfthryth was the first consort to be crowned queen of England.
 
Edgar was the patron of a great monastic revival which owed much to his association with Archbishop Dunstan. New bishoprics were created, Benedictine monasteries were reformed and old monastic sites were re-endowed with royal grants, some of which were of land recovered from the Vikings.

In the 970s and in the absence of Viking attacks, Edgar - a stern judge - issued laws which for the first time dealt with Northumbria (parts of which were in the Danelaw) as well as Wessex and Mercia. Edgar's coinage was uniform throughout the kingdom. A more united kingdom based on royal justice and order was emerging; the Monastic Agreement (c.970) praised Edgar as 'the glorious, by the grace of Christ illustrious king of the English and of the other peoples dwelling within the bounds of the island of Britain'. After his death on 8 July 975, Edgar was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset.
 
Edgar the Peaceable King of England 959-975 (I2706)
 
172
Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. Edward surrounded himself with favourites (the best known being a Gascon, Piers Gaveston), and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign, different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King.

The nobles' ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were counteracted by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce in 1314 made Edward more unpopular.

Edward's victory in a civil war (1321-2) and such measures as the 1326 ordinance (a protectionist measure which set up compulsory markets or staples in 14 English, Welsh and Irish towns for the wool trade) did not lead to any compromise between the King and the nobles.

Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, led an invasion against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward (the first time that an anointed king of England had been dethroned since Ethelred in 1013). Edward II was later murdered at Berkeley Castle.
 
Edward II King of England 1307-1327 (I2686)
 
173
Edward III was 14 when he was crowned King and assumed government in his own right in 1330. In 1337, Edward created the Duchy of Cornwall to provide the heir to the throne with an income independent of the sovereign or the state. An able soldier, and an inspiring leader, Edward founded the Order of the Garter in 1348.

At the beginning of the Hundred Years War in 1337, actual campaigning started when the King invaded France in 1339 and laid claim to the throne of France. Following a sea victory at Sluys in 1340, Edward overran Brittany in 1342 and in 1346 he landed in Normandy, defeating the French King, Philip IV, at the Battle of Crécy and his son Edward (the Black Prince) repeated his success at Poitiers (1356). By 1360 Edward controlled over a quarter of France. His successes consolidated the support of the nobles, lessened criticism of the taxes, and improved relations with Parliament. However, under the 1375 Treaty of Bruges the French King, Charles V, reversed most of the English conquests; Calais and a coastal strip near Bordeaux were Edward's only lasting gain.

Failure abroad provoked criticism at home. The Black Death plague outbreaks of 1348-9, 1361-2 and 1369 inflicted severe social dislocation (the King lost a daughter to the plague) and caused deflation; severe laws were introduced to attempt to ffix wages and prices. In 1376, the 'Good Parliament' (which saw the election of the first Speaker to represent the Commons) attacked the high taxes and criticised the King's advisers. The ageing King withdrew to Windsor for the rest of his reign, eventually dying at Sheen Palace, Surrey.
 
Edward III King of England 1327-1377 (I2684)
 
174
Edward III's son, the Black Prince, died in 1376. The king's grandson, Richard II, succeeded to the throne aged 10, on Edward's death.

In 1381 the Peasants' Revolt broke out and Richard, aged 14, bravely rode out to meet the rebels at Smithfield, London. Wat Tyler, the principal leader of the peasants, was killed and the uprisings in the rest of the country were crushed over the next few weeks (Richard was later forced by his Council's advice to rescind the pardons he had given).

Highly cultured, Richard was one of the greatest royal patrons of the arts; patron of Chaucer, it was Richard who ordered the technically innovative transformation of the Norman Westminster Hall to what it is today. (Built between 1097 and 1099 by William II, the Hall was the ceremonial and administrative centre of the kingdom; it also housed the Courts of Justice until 1882.)

Richard's authoritarian approach upset vested interests, and his increasing dependence on favourites provoked resentment. In 1388 the 'Merciless Parliament', led by a group of lords hostile to Richard (headed by the King's uncle, Gloucester), sentenced many of the king's favourites to death and forced Richard to renew his coronation oath. The death of his first queen, Anne of Bohemia, in 1394 further isolated Richard, and his subsequent arbitrary behaviour alienated people further.

Richard took his revenge in 1397, arresting or banishing many of his opponents; his cousin, Henry of Bolingbroke, was also subsequently banished. On the death of Henry's father, John of Gaunt (a younger son of Edward III), Richard confiscated the vast properties of his Duchy of Lancaster (which amounted to a state within a state) and divided them among his supporters.

Richard pursued policies of peace with France (his second wife was Isabella of Valois); Richard still called himself king of France and refused to give up Calais, but his reign was concurrent with a 28 year truce in the Hundred Years War. His expeditions to Ireland failed to reconcile the Anglo-Irish lords with the Gaels.

In 1399, whilst Richard was in Ireland, Henry of Bolingbroke returned to claim his father's inheritance. Supported by some of the leading baronial families (including Richard's former Archbishop of Canterbury), Henry captured and deposed Richard. Bolingbroke was crowned King as Henry IV.

Risings in support of Richard led to his murder in Pontefract Castle; Henry V subsequently had his body buried in Westminster Abbey.

http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon33.html ...

Richard II (AD 1377-1399)
Born: 6 January 1367 at Bordeaux, Gascony
Murdered: 14 February 1400 at Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire
Buried: Westminster Abbey, Middlesex
Parents: Edward, Prince of Wales - "the Black Prince" - and Joan, the "Fair Maid of Kent"
Siblings: Edward of Angouleme
Crowned: 16 July 1377 at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex
Abdicated: 29 September 1399
Married: (1st) 14 January 1382 at St. Stephen's Chapel in the Palace of Westminster, Middlesex; (2nd) 4th November 1396 at Calais
Spouse: (1st) Anne daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor & King of Bohemia; (2nd) Isabella daughter of Charles VI, King of France
Offspring: None
Named Heir: His cousin, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March
Contemporaries: Wat Tyler; Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford; Michael de la Pole; Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel; Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick; John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester; Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), Earl of Derby; Geoffrey Chaucer

Richard II, born in 1367, was the son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent. Richard was but ten years old when he succeeded his grandfather, Edward III; England was ruled by a council under the leadership of John of Gaunt, and Richard was tutored by Sir Simon Burley. He married the much-beloved Anne of Bohemia in 1382, who died childless in 1394. Edward remarried in 1396, wedding the seven year old Isabella of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France, to end a further struggle with France.

Richard asserted royal authority during an era of royal restrictions. Economic hardship followed the Black Death, as wages and prices rapidly increased. Parliament exacerbated the problem by passing legislation limiting wages but failing to also regulate prices. In 1381, Wat Tyler led the Peasants' Revolt against the oppressive government policies of John of Gaunt. Richard's unwise generosity to his favorites - Michael de la Pole, Robert de Vere and others - led Thomas, Duke of Gloucester and four other magnates to form the Lords Appellant. The five Lords Appellant tried and convicted five of Richard's closest advisors for treason. In 1397, Richard arrested three of the five Lords, coerced Parliament to sentence them to death and banished the other two. One of the exiles was Henry Bolingbroke, the future Henry IV. Richard travelled to Ireland in 1399 to quell warring chieftains, allowing Bolingboke to return to England and be elected king by Parliament. Richard lacked support and was quickly captured by Henry IV.

Deposed in 1399, Richard was murdered while in prison, the first casualty of the Wars of the Roses between the Houses of Lancaster and York.
 
Richard II King of England 1377-1399 (I519)
 
175
Eldest of five girls. Grew up in Decoco and Rosedale, Queensland. Schooling in Gladstone and Rockhampton - commenced boarding school at age 6. Came home on weekends on the train and taught younger sister Geraldine what she had learned during the week. Eventually completed schooling at The Range School in Rockhampton. Started work in State Stores Brisbane as a Secretary and joined the Army in a similar role and soon after met husband to be. She was an active and dedicated member of Amaranth, OES and Shrine for many years where she was active in raising money for many charities. Enjoyed shopping and more shopping; reading newspapers for shopping specials; and watching the never-ending episodes of A Country Practice.
Family raised in Hendra - a horse racing suburb, rubbed off on most of the children. Probably the fondest family memory was the Friday nights when they all brought their mates home for a few beers. As she stood at the top of the stairs and they filed past, she mandatorially took their car keys and placed them in the pocket of her apron. Then dutifully watched over them and patiently put up with the never-ending phantom race calls.  She then headed off to bed herself, only when the last of their energy was expended.
[extracted from the eulogy presented by eldest son Robert at her funeral 17 Feb 2006]
 
Murphy, Jacqueline Ivy (I703)
 
176
Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most powerful and fascinating personalities of feudal Europe. At age 15 she married Louis VII, King of France, bringing into the union her vast possessions from the River Loire to the Pyrenees. Only a few years later, at age 19, she knelt in the cathedral of Vézelay before the celebrated Abbé Bernard of Clairvaux offering him thousands of her vassals for the Second Crusade. It was said that Queen Eleanor appeared at Vézelay dressed like an Amazon galloping through the crowds on a white horse, urging them to join the crusades.

While the church may have been pleased to receive her thousand fighting vassals, they were less happy when they learned that Eleanor, attended by 300 of her ladies, also planned to go to help "tend the wounded."

The presence of Eleanor, her ladies and wagons of female servants, was criticized by commentators throughout her adventure. Dressed in armor and carrying lances, the women never fought. And when they reached the city of Antioch, Eleanor found herself deep in a renewed friendship with Raymond, her uncle, who had been appointed prince of the city. Raymond, only a few years older than Eleanor, was far more interesting and handsome than Eleanor's husband, Louis. When Raymond decided that the best strategic objective of the Crusade would be to recapture Edessa, thus protecting the Western presence in the Holy Land, Eleanor sided with his view. Louis, however, was fixated on reaching Jerusalem, a less sound goal. Louis demanded that Eleanor follow him to Jerusalem. Eleanor, furious, announced to one and all that their marriage was not valid in the eyes of God, for they were related through some family connections to an extent prohibited by the Church. Wounded by her claim, Louis nonetheless forced Eleanor to honor her marriage vows and ride with him. The expedition did fail, and a defeated Eleanor and Louis returned to France in separate ships.

On her way home, while resting in Sicily, Eleanor was brought the news that her fair haired uncle had been killed in battle, and his head delivered to the Caliph of Baghdad. Although her marriage to Louis continued for a time, and she bore him two daughters, the relationship was over. In 1152 the marriage was annulled and her vast estates reverted to Eleanor's control. Within a year, at age thirty, she married twenty year old Henry who two years later became king of England.

In the papal bull for the next Crusade, it expressly forbade women of all sorts to join the expedition. All the Christian monarchs, including King Louis, agreed to this. But by this time Eleanor had problems of her own in her marriage to King Henry II of England.
--http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/heroine2.html

See also
http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/EofAreturns.html
http://www.lynnabbey.com/html/eleanor_of_aquitaine.htm
http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/England/Angevin/Eleanor.html
http://ut.essortment.com/eleanoraquitain_rehd.htm
 
d' Aquitaine, Eleanor (I2695)
 
177
Ethelred, the younger son of Edgar, became king at the age of seven following the murder of his half-brother Edward II in 978 at Corfe Castle, Dorset, by Edward's own supporters.

For the rest of Ethelred's rule (reigned 978-1016), his brother became a posthumous rallying point for political unrest; a hostile Church transformed Edward into a royal martyr. Known as the Un-raed or 'Unready' (meaning 'no counsel', or that he was unwise), Ethelred failed to win or retain the allegiance of many of his subjects. In 1002, he ordered the massacre of all Danes in England to eliminate potential treachery.

Not being an able soldier, Ethelred defended the country against increasingly rapacious Viking raids from the 980s onwards by diplomatic alliance with the duke of Normandy in 991 (he later married the duke's daughter Emma) and by buying off renewed attacks by the Danes with money levied through a tax called the Danegeld. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1006 was dismissive: 'in spite of it all, the Danish army went about as it pleased'. By 1012, 48,000 pounds of silver was being paid in Danegeld to Danes camped in London.
 
In 1013, Ethelred fled to Normandy when the powerful Viking Sweyn of Denmark dispossessed him. Ethelred returned to rule after Sweyn's death in 1014, but died himself in 1016.
 
Ethelred the Unready King of England 979-1013,1014-16 (I2704)
 
178
EULOGY - 20th May 2004 - Read by Anne ROY

Phyllis Agnes ROY -- 12/11/1918 to 13/05/2004

Thank you all for coming today to celebrate the life of Phyllis Agnes Roy, a loving mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, sister, aunt and friend to those here today.

Those who met Mum will remember being touched by her gentleness, her caring for others and her delightful sense of joy and laughter.

Mum was born Phyllis Agnes Jacobson in Ingham on 12th November 1918, the 4th of 7 children to Edward and Annie Jacobson. Her birthdate was quite significant in that it was the first day of peace after WW1, and her love of peace and harmony was an integral part of her character. She avoided discord, was uncritical and gentle, and without prejudice. She was a very peaceful person to be around.

Her father died when she was 9 and, as a result, the harsh circumstances of the time necessitated the family being separated for a short while. But there was always a strong family closeness and belonging with Mum and her siblings throughout the rest of their lives.

She gave that same sense of family closeness to us all in her own family.

She came to Cairns as a young adult and trained as a nurse at the Cairns Base Hospital. Mum was a slim, elegant, red-headed young woman with a most infectious giggle and a joy of life, who caught the eye of a handsome Irishman named Tom Roy and the rest as they say is history. She was given the nickname of "Ginge" by Dad and those who knew them at that time.

Their marriage was robust and lively and she was truly his "other half". They had 5 children before moving from Cairns to Mareeba where they became small business owners. After selling the shop, Dad worked from home as a building consultant and Mum settled to a life as a wife and mother with time for her other passion -gardening. A butcher bird that visited her garden regularly season after season was a much appreciated visitor. Her orchids and roses were of source of great pleasure.

Her social interests included Rotaryannes and Lawn Bowls, and she loved to catch up with her friends at bingo.

She loved family activities and was always ready to play cards, go fishing, bush walking, picnicking and bird watching. When she travelled anywhere, it was to be with family members. She eagerly looked forward to and thoroughly enjoyed any family get-together.

She took great delight in her grandchildren and great-grandchildren and obviously felt that anybody who stood still long enough should hear how interesting and clever they were.

Her Grandchildren have loving memories of their Grandmother. It was pure delight to visit her, and she would often reminisce about her life in such a way that would bring gales of laughter from us all.

These times they spent with her will always live in their happiest memories.

She never learnt to drive, so the job of navigator fell to her on road trips. As a navigator mum left a bit to be desired. When asked "How far away such-and-such a town was?" she would study the strip map for a few moments and reply - "umm, … about half and inch"!!!

She was terrified of frogs which was a cause of great hilarity in the household, as they would often appear in the toilets in the days before sewerage. The family trade off was that she remove the spiders and we'd remove the frogs.

Mum and Dad had both been brought up in devoutly religious families which is not uncommon but theirs had a significant difference to most that would test the strongest of marriages from which few would survive. Theirs did. Dad and his family mmigrated from Northern Ireland, they were unwaveringly Protestant. Mum's family had its roots firmly planted in the south of Ireland, they were devoutly Roman Catholic. Over the years they developed their own shared understanding, or religion if you like, that included us and became an integral part of our family life. This belief was both personal and private, based on a strong spiritual belief and an unwavering belief in a benevolent God.

Dad died suddenly in 1982. That was a difficult time for Mum, losing one's mate without warning, but she came through it with the quiet resolution that was so much a part of her.

When the family home became too empty of people and too full of memories she moved to a cottage in Dickenson Close. Two of the male residents of other cottages promptly traded in their trucks for cars so they could take Mum shopping and to Bingo, and she made many friends as a result of this move.

Mum suffered from Strokes and Parkinson's Disease in her 80's, which, although they gradually destroyed her physical abilities, never detracted from her lively wit, intelligence and laughter. Mum spent the last few years in RSL Farnorha, being cared for on a 24-hour basis, and was loved by both residents and staff. She never lost her infectious giggle - even in the last pain-filled days of her life.

You didn't deserve these last few years, Mum, but you bore them with great fortitude.

On behalf of the family, I want to express our gratitude for your joyous contribution to our lives, for your constant support and for the way you made our family into such a warm and caring unit. You will always be a part of our lives and will remain much loved by us all.
 
Jacobson, Phyllis Agnes (I572)
 
179
Extract of War Graves Commission web site:

In Memory of
VALENTINE JULIUS BLAKE HUFFAM
Private
31690
Field Amb., N.Z. Medical Corps
who died on
Wednesday, 22nd January 1919. Age 31.
Additional Information: Son of T. Blake Huffam and Jane Huffam, of Richmond, Nelson, New Zealand.
Commemorative Information
Cemetery: COLOGNE SOUTHERN CEMETERY, Germany
Grave Reference/
Panel Number: I. C. 23.

Location: Cologne Southern Cemetery, known locally as Sudfriedhof, Zollstock, is about 5 kilometres south of the cathedral on the Honningerweg. The cemetery may be approached from the A4 motorway leaving at junction Koln-Klettenberg. Follow the direction for Koln-Klettenberg, turning right into the Luxemburger Strasse. At the traffic lights, close to the railway crossing, turn right again into the Militarring Strasse. At the second traffic lights turn left into the Oberer Komarweg, which passes under a viaduct. Turn right into the Kalscheurer Strasse. Turn right again into the first street which is the Keudenicher Strasse, this road leads to the Honinger Platz. The main entrance of 'Koln Sudfriedhof' can be seen from this Honinger Platz roundabout. Entering the 'Friedhof' from the main entrance, follow the main cemetery road which leads to Cologne War Cemetery.

Historical Information: Cologne was entered by British forces on the 6th December, 1918, and occupied by the British Army, under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, from that month until January, 1926. The Sudfriedhof, or Southern Cemetery, is one of the City cemeteries, begun in 1900, and covers a very large area. It was used during the war for the burial of more than a 1,000 Allied prisoners, as well as German soldiers. After the Armistice it was used by the British garrison and iin 1922, it was chosen as one of the four permanent cemeteries to which British graves in Germany should be moved. The work was completed in the following year. British graves were brought to Cologne from 183 cemeteries throughout Germany. Within the cemetery stands the Cologne Memorial, which commemorates twenty-five Non Commissioned Officers and men of the forces of the United Kingdom, who died in Germany and the sites of whose graves are not known. The British War Grave Plots are laid out in the form of the letter T, with the head of the T at the East end and at right angles to the main avenue of the cemetery. They are prolonged at the West end by four plots of Rhine Army burials which took place after the legal termination of the War.

Julius Valentine Blake HUFFAM
1888-1919

Julius Valentine Blake - son of T. Blake HUFFAM and Jane JACOBSEN
Julius was the first born of T. Blake HUFFAM and Jane JACOBSEN. T. Blake was 36 when he married Jane, the daughter of Captain Henry JACOBSEN, of Nelson. Jane was only 22. The marriage took place in the home of Henry Jacobsen, in Britannia Heights above Nelson on the 20th of June 1885. Jane was the eldest daughter, and the first to marry.
Julius Valentine Blake was born on the 14th of February 1888. The name Valentine must have seemed apt to the HUFFAM's of the time, as this name had been given to Edward Valentine HUFFAM, born on 14 February 1861, and to another Edward Valentine HUFFAM born on the same day and the same year as our Julius. The third Edward Valentine HUFFAM, born on the 6th of May 1917 must have inherited the name from his grandfather - the first Edward Valentine.

The name Julius came from his maternal grandfather, Johann Julius Heinrich Jacobsen, from whom he also inherited his love of the sea. Blake, as well as being his father's name, was his paternal grandmother's maiden name.

Julius' next sibling was Dorothea Agnes Jane, born in 1890. It wasn't until Julius was seven when his next sister appeared - Runa Brunhilde Frances. Godiva Catherine (Iva) was born in 1900 when Julius was twelve, and Blake Frederick Will was born in 1904 when Julius was sixteen years old.

Julius decided to go to sea at a young age - he was only 15 when he left home. His first letters reflect the joy of a young boy, living a wonderful life:

"I enjoy the sailorising very much."

"So far I have not had a sickness or even toothache since I left N.Z. I am proud of that since everyone was laid up in Java but I. I have struck a paradise in this ship, nothing to do and plenty to eat and bathing all day."

By the time he was 17 he had been to Souvabaya, Java, Barbadoes, and London. London especially was a great time for the young lad, and he writes of going to

"The Tower of London, St Pauls, The Crystal Palace, Westminster Abbey, all through the underground railway and to Margate, Ramsgate and Southend."

His upbringing (or perhaps the tone of his mother's letters) was reflected in the constant reiteration that he "kept clear if drink and smoking". Although London also had a down side, with "a lot of disgusting scenes about here. Drunken men and women and poor little children running about in rags."

"It is a terrible place in the slums, the Policemen go about in twos, many are murdered in the slums."

By August 1904, Julius was finding life a little harder. He and another shipmate jumped ship, as the new skipper made "life unbearable". His attitude to life was still as a carefree lad, as he asks of news from home

"How is the Baby and what have you called it? I was so delighted to hear of it."

The next ship Julius joined, the J. W. Hutt, was a 350 ton schooner, and only required eight hands. He traveled between South Carolina in the USA and Trinidad. After six months on the schooner, he signed in January 1905 for 24 months on the Edward Sewell. This ship paid well, but turned out to be both the maturing of Julius and a voyage of horrors.

"We were treated with utter brutality. Knocked about with belaying pins and laid out with blackjacks etc. The mate is worse than the devil and we have been starved nearly the whole passage. April was the scene of our worst experience. We encounttered a terrific gale when 55S and 1E Long. Our decks were swept fore and aft with tremendous seas and our sails were blown to bits and our foc'sle and every other place was washed out. It was bitterly cold and our sails were frozen stiff and ice was floating around our decks."

By August 1905 the tone of Julius' letters had changed, he speaks of the brutality of the officers, and the strange entertainment in the foc'sle.

"Our foc'sle broom has about three hairs in it now and we look like a lot of maniacs when we strike up the band in the foc'sle. Plenty of tobacco juice to aid us in our gracefulness in dancing."

In October 1905 Julius has been on two voyages with the Edward Sewell, one of 150 days and one of 105. In both passages there are insufficient provisions, and the voyages are marked with the brutality of the officers. He speaks of revenge for the captain, and attempts to get discharged, which are ignored. The crew is nearly raised to mutiny twice, and Julius notes that he is "going crazy".

He is just seventeen years old.

Julius Valentine Blake - soldier
When Julius was 30, war broke out in Europe. It is not surprising that a young man who had seen the world, volunteered, and joined the New Zealand Medical Corps. On 22nd January 1919 Julius died in Cologne, Germany. His French fiancée apparently kept in touch with the family for a while after his death.
 
Huffam, Julius Valentine Blake (I3734)
 
180
First King of Norway

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_I_of_Norway

born c. 860 died c. 940 byname Harald Fairhair, or Finehair, Norwegian Harald Hårfager, Old Norse Harald Hárfagri the first king to claim sovereignty over all Norway. One of the greatest of the 9th-century Scandinavian warrior chiefs, he gained effective control of Norway's western coastal districts but probably had only nominal authority in the other parts of Norway.
The son of Halvdan the Black, ruler of part of southeastern Norway and a scion of the Yngling dynasty, the ancient royal house of Sweden, Harald succeeded his father at the age of 10. His first conquest came with the suppression of a revolt in the Uplands region. A pact with Haakon, earl of Lade, enabled him to pursue conquest of the western districts, culminating in the battle of Hafrsfjord, dated 872 by medieval historians but placed 10 to 20 years later by modern historians.
Harald's conquests and taxation system led many chiefs and their followers to emigrate to the British Isles, adjacent lands, and perhaps to Iceland, which first became known to Scandinavians during the era of Harald's rule. He acquired wealth through his control of coastal trade but ruled indirectly through lesser chieftains in areas other than his own tightly controlled home district, in the southwest. His major governmental contribution lay in the development of provincial administrations (lagtings).
The most reliable information on Harald's life is contained in contemporary poems written down in Iceland in the 13th century. His career is also described in 12th- and 13th-century Icelandic and Norwegian historical works of questionable reliability, the fullest account being written by the Icelander Snorri Sturluson (d. 1241) in the Heimskringla.
--"Harald I." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service
28 Apr. 2005 .
 
Halfdansson, Harald I King of Norway (I3633)
 
181
First Monarch of all England
Edward's heir Athelstan (reigned 925-39) was also a distinguished and audacious soldier who pushed the boundaries of the kingdom to their furthest extent yet. In 927-8, Athelstan took York from the Danes; he forced the submission of king Constantine of Scotland and of the northern kings; all five Welsh kings agreed to pay a huge annual tribute (reportedly including 25,000 oxen), and Athelstan eliminated opposition in Cornwall.
The battle of Brunanburh in 937, in which Athelstan led a force drawn from Britain and defeated an invasion by the king of Scotland in alliance with the Welsh and Danes from Dublin, earned him recognition by lesser kings in Britain.
Athelstan's law codes strengthened royal control over his large kingdom; currency was regulated to control silver's weight and to penalise fraudsters. Buying and selling was mostly confined to the burhs, encouraging town life; areas of settlement in the midlands and Danish towns were consolidated into shires. Overseas, Athelstan built alliances by marrying four of his half-sisters to various rulers in western Europe.
He also had extensive cultural and religious contacts; as an enthusiastic and discriminating collector of works of art and religious relics, he gave away much of his collection to his followers and to churches and bishops in order to retain their support.
Athelstan died at the height of his power and was buried at Malmesbury; a church charter of 934 described him as 'King of the English, elevated by the right hand of the Almighty ... to the Throne of the whole Kingdom of Britain'. Athelstan died childless.
 
Athelstan King of England 924-939 (I2719)
 
182
Following is a compilation of memories written by Jean Audrey CAMERON nee ROBSON (daughter of George Hugh ROBSON [Hugh] and Mary Elizabeth HOLLOWAY [May].
Written by Jean Robson Cameron as told to her by her father George Hugh Robson about his childhood in the "Bush" that fascinated his children..:-
"The occasional Indian Hawker who arrived "turban and black beard", in his horse drawn covered wagon with a load of delightful things- bolts of household materials, coloured materials for the ladies, dresses, sweets, indeed just about every thing that was needed.
The occasional Chinese too (they employed a Chinese cook at one time). And the Aborigines were always around, wanting "Baccy", flour and anything else that could be spared. The door was never opened at night, but a wooden window was used. Treated fairly but firmly by Grandma, they were friendly and well behaved. (It must have been frightening all the same.)
Even our Mother, for a short time in her early married life - and a generation later - was fearful when she and one or two small children had to be alone while Dad was away. Their cottage was in a small clearing in the "bush". There were no very near neighbours who, in any case, also were cut off by "bush". At dusk she would close themselves in the house with locked doors and windows, and the last thing saw as she closed the door, was a black stump a short way off behind which she could "almost" see the black face of Jimmy Governor, a bushranger wanted by the Police.
So much for the "Good Old Days" in the country Pioneer areas!!
One story Grandma told Flora was how, at certain times throughout the year, her parents would hold a Ball at night after a day's cross country hunt. It was a grand affair and to the delight of the children they were allowed to watch from the top of the stair.
(Her father was one of the wealthier farmers "of the day" and as a family they grew up with many advantages.)
I have often thought that people who came from this higher middle class to the strangeness and rigours of the Australian conditions at that time, must have been greatly disillusioned. But what grand people they were!!
When these, our Grandparents, (George and Magdalene ROBSON) arrived in Sydney Cove as "newly weds", they stayed for a short time then decided they wanted to live in Victoria. The Gold Rush was at its height and the excitement may have influenced their decision. Money was not a problem so they bought a covered-type caravan and set out for Ballarat. (I wonder how long it took!). Conditions there were repulsive and frightening to the new bride and they moved to the Meredith/Wadyallock area and bought a grazing property. They were to keep it for only, apparently, three years.
During that time they suffered great losses through bush fires, and Grandfather was extremely ill after severe sunstroke. The doctor advised that they move to a highter altitude such as New England in NSW, and they moved to Walcha about 1855.

Concerning their life at Walcha---
As the children grew old enough, my Grandfather held "school" day by day & taught his children.
There was no school within miles of Walcha during those years - and his children were a credit to him. (He himself was not very strong for years after the sunstroke.)
In later years they sold and lived out at Armidale on their property "Green Hills", and finally at Uralla. My father {George Hugh}, their only son by then, was not interested in the land, so "Green Hills" was sold and the Uralla cottage built. Grandfather died in December of 1895 and Grandmother lived for another thirteen years.
After that my father bought the house and as a family we lived there for many years. After my father died, Mother stayed on for another 4-5 years, then sold out and moved to Sydney to live with me and my husband. She was holidaying with our sister Ella and husband where she died at the great age of 90 years 7months..
Our Mother was a wonderful woman and I could write a book about her. She had many, many friends and was loved by all, the very young as well as older folk.
As a family we are very proud of our parents, and of our Grandparents. None could have been finer. If they could see their children's children, and their children, I hope they would be content.."
Written by Jean (Robson) Cameron
20th July 1975, Roseville, Sydney
 
Robson, Jean Audrey (I3968)
 
183
Footnote from Planche Page 42
The Ruellinus de Abrincis named in this document* has never appeared in any pedigree of the family of D'Avranches. From the other interesting record to which we have just alluded, we infer that he was the brother of Simon d'Avranche, plaintiff or appellant, in a trial by wager of battle with Baldwin, Comte de Guisnes, 10th February, 1201, respecting the right to some lands in Newington; for there can be no doubt that the hiatus in the MS. should be filled up thus:-" Inter Simonem de AvAvranches petentem per Roelland. fratrem suum."(Archaeol. Cant. . vol. ii. p. 265.) This name, which was that of his grandfather, who married Maud de Muneville, heiress of Folkestone, being most capriciously spelt, not only Roellandus, Ruellinus, Roelent, Rualo, and Ruallon, but also Graalandus and Graelent, as it will be found in the families of Tany, Valoigne's , St. Ledger, and others, beside that of D'Avranches. In a document of the date 1127, printed by Mr. Boys in his 11 Collections for the History of Sandwich," pp. 551-3, the name of the grandfather is corrupted into Ruerent de Aurences, and in the " Rot. Curiae Regis," 9th & 10th of Richard I., that of the grandson is indifferently given as Grelent, Rohelandus, and Rolandus. It has subsided into the more familiar form of Roland.

*A legal document called the final concorde of the eigth year of the reign of Richard 1 AD 1197 between Elias de Beauchamp and Constance de Bolbec, his wife, plaintiffs, on one part and Ruellinus de Abrincis (Avranches) tenant, on the other...
 
d' Avranches, Rualo (I2991)
 
184
From Jamaica Family Search - various lists. Continuity between dates likely but not proven. Many of these appointments show Charles Royes and Charles Clement Bravo in similar appointments:
St Ann's Bank - treasurer 1851 - 1857 - not 1865
St Ann's Eastern Militia (Lieutenant) 1851 - 1857 - 1861 - 1865
St Ann Magistrate 1851 - 1857 - 1865 ("residing out of parish" which is a different classification from "off the island")
Roads and Bridges - St Ann "Householder" Seville District 1857 (appears to be an appointment)

Gleaner (Jamaica) 1 Jun 1881: We regret to record the death of Mr. Joseph Bravo, once a merchant in this island, and long resident in London, where he continued to engage in West Indian business and served as a director of the Colonial Bank.

Bravo Bros in St Ann's Bay were general merchants, agents for the Colonial Bank.
Gleaner (Jamaica) 3 Apr 1882 reports: We regret to learn that the country is likely to lose the valuable services of the Hon. Michael Solomon, Custos of St. Ann, M L. C. We understand that the hon. gentleman will leave this Island for England, via New York, by the steamer of the 12th instant, and that he will be absent about six months. During that time Mr. E. G. Barrett will probably act as Custos of St. Ann and Chairman of the Parochial Boards. It is quite possible that Mr. Solomon will not return to be a permanent resident in the Island, but will take in England the position held in the firm of which he is a member, by the late Mr. Bravo. Mr. Solomon’s absence from the Legislative Council will be regretted throughout the Island, and in his own Parish, where he is the most popular of Custodes, his place will not be easily filled.

Liverpool Mercury, Friday 12 August 1881:
The will (dated August 28 1880) of Mr Joseph Bravo on No 2 Palace-green, Kensington, who died on 28 May last, was proved on 29th ult. By Michael Solomon, his sole executor, the personal estate exceeding in value £19,000; but this sum, does not of course, include his property in Jamaica. The testator bequeaths £40,000 and his furniture, plate, pictures, household effects, horses and carriages to his stepdaughters, Alice and Ellen Turner; and legacies to his own and his late wife’s relatatives, servants and others. His residuary estate is to be held upon trust for the said Michael Solomon and his wife Adelaide, for their lives, and on the death of the survivor is to be equally divided between the British Home for Incurables, the Deaf and Dumb Institution, Old Kent Road, University Hospital; the convent School, Hendon, Middlesex, and the Convent School, St Leonard’s on Sea.

See also Thorney-Bravo-Foreman-Nielson-Morgan family tree on ancestry.com
 
Bravo, Joseph (I1733)
 
185
From Joy Logan:
"We have lost all touch with the Terrys. The two eldest children were Doreen and Kenneth - I am not sure in which order. I have no memory of ever meeting them: they lived mostly abroad. Their Christmas letters from Gibraltar in 1935 started me on my stamp collection, and Moyra and I still have necklaces of carved ivory elephants sent I think from Ceylon. Later they settled in England and seem to have lost touch after Granny died [1939].
"Uncle Arthur was a Radio Officer in the Royal Navy, and served in HMS RENOWN when the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor) went round the world in her in 1924. Later RENOWN visited a number of ports in Britain so that peoplle could go aboard and see the Prince's apartments. One often-told story... was that when Uncle Arthur came to Larne on leave he took Aunt Madge out one evening on a 'Mystery Tour'. This turned out to be a visit to RENOWN in Belfast: the comments of his shipmates were never repeated in my hearing!
"Hugh tells me that when he was at ATC camp in Weston-Super-Mare in 1949 he visited them in Swindon, and renewed correspondence for a short time, but after a few years letters were unanswered. I think I remember that when Aunt Lily visited me in Chard in 1974 uncle Arthur was living in Ipswich - too far for a visit."
 
Family F361
 
186
from Killane

John Hogan (Bendigo, Victoria, Australia) tells us that his father Patrick (1893-1970) used to sing about Kelly the Boy from Killane and wondered if there was a family connection. Jack Hogan's response is: The answer is there could well be and family lore suggests that there was. But EVERYONE who researches the name Kelly from Killane claims a family connection !!

From http://www.scotsindependent.org/features/singasang/kelly_killane.htm -
KELLY OF KILLANE
Patrick Joseph McCall

What's the news? What's the news? O my bold Shelmalier,
With your long-barrelled gun of the sea?
Say what wind from the south blows his messenger here
With a hymn of the dawn for the free?
"Goodly news, goodly news, do I bring, Youth of Forth;
Goodly news shall you hear, Bargy man!
For the boys march at morn from the South to the North,
Led by Kelly, the Boy from Killane!"

"Tell me who is that giant with gold curling hair -
He who rides at the head of your band?
Seven feet is his height, with some inches to spare,
And he looks like a king in command!" -
"Ah, my lads, that's the pride of the bold Shelmaliers,
'Mong our greatest of heroes, a Man! -
Fling your beavers aloft and give three ringing cheers
For John Kelly, the Boy from Killane!"

Enniscorthy's in flames, and old Wexford is won,
And the Barrow tomorrow we cross,
On a hill o'er the town we have planted a gun
That will batter the gateways of Ross!
All the Forth men and Bargy men march o'er the heath,
With brave Harvey to lead on the van;
But the foremost of all in the grim Gap of Death
Will be Kelly, the Boy from Killane!"

But the gold sun of Freedom grew darkened at Ross,
And it set by the Slaney's red waves;
And poor Wexford, stript naked, hung high on a cross,
And her heart pierced by traitors and slaves!
Glory O! Glory O! to her brave sons who died
For the cause of long-down-trodden man!
Glory O! to Mount Leinster's own darling and pride -
Dauntless Kelly, the Boy from Killane!"

Footnote - Patrick Joseph McCall ( 1861-1919 ) was born in Patrick Street, Dublin. His summer holidays were spent in Rathangan, Co. Wexford, where he made the aquaintance of local musicians and ballad singers. He collected many old Irish airs, b but is best remembered for his patriotic ballads. I first heard this song from the 1798 Rising in Ireland sung by The Revellers at the Rothes Folk Club in the Golden Acorn Hotel, Glenrothes circa 1963. The hero of the song, John Kelly of Killane Co. Wexford, Ireland, was detailed by the Commander-in-Chief, Bagenal Harvey, to bring in all the available men from the Barony of Bantry for the planned attack on New Ross. He was seriously wounded in Michael Street, New Ross, following the successful attack on Three Bullet Gate. He was recovering in Wexford Town when it was recaptured by the British. A yeoman sergeant who was a neighbour and whose life he had saved some days before, gave evidence against him. He was hanged on Wexford Bridge, his trunk conveyed to the water and his head trailed and kicked along the streets before being spiked. Friends recovered the head and brought it to Killane for burial and a monument was later erected on the spot.
 
Kelly, Sarah or Mary (I885)
 
187 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Royes, O. (I5211)
 
188
Geoffrey V (1113 - 1151), Count of Anjou and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy, called "Geoffrey the Fair" or "Geoffrey Plantagent", was the son of Fulk V, Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem. Geoffrey's mother was Eremburg of La Flèche, heiress of Maine. Geoffrey himself became the father of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings.

Nicknamed for the sprig of broom (= genêt plant, in French) he wore in his hat as a badge, at the age of 15 he married Matilda, the daughter of Henry I of England and widow of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage in 1128 was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, and their marriage was a stormy one, but she survived him. Their eldest son became Henry II of England.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king), leaving Geoffrey behind as count as Anjou.

When king Henry died in 1135, Maud's cousin Stephen seized the throne. While Maud turned her attentions to England, Geoffrey focused on the conquest of Normandy. This was to take a decade of steady seigework and alliance-building, a process Geoffrey would not abandon even when his wife pleaded for help in England. The merits of this strategy are sometimes debated. While Angevin forces might have been decisive if brought over to England, it also seems that the possession of Normandy played a role, possibly even a decisive one, in the eventual success of their son Henry in taking the English crown.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England.

In the remaining years of his life, Geoffrey consolidated his hold on Normandy, reforming the administration of the duchy, and, in 1150, introduced Henry into its rule.

He died on September 7, 1151, still a young man, and is buried in Le Mans Cathedral in France.

References
• Jim Bradbury, "Geoffrey V of Anjou, Count and Knight", in The Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood III
• Charles H. Haskins, "Normandy Under Geoffrey Plantagenet", The English Historical Review, volume 27 (July 1912), pp. 417-444
--http://www.fact-index.com/g/ge/geoffrey_of_anjou.html


GEOFFREY V "le Bel" (Plantagenet), Comte d'Anjou & Maine, Duke of Normandy (1144-1150), b 1113, d 1151, m in 1128 as 2nd husband of 25 yrs old MATILDA (Maud) "the Empress", only surviving legitimate child and heiress of King HENRY I (see under England Kings for ancestors), d 1169. Her 1st husband was the Holy Roman (German) Emperor Heinrich V. Prior to marriage with GEOFFREY she'd been in love with STEPHEN de Blois.
Children:
King HENRY II, b 1133 (see under England, Kings, for descendants)
Geoffrey, d 1158, Comte de Nantes
Guillaume, d 1164, Comte de Poitou

GEOFFREY V's illegitimate dau EMMA, m 1st GUY V, Seigneur du LAVAL , and m 2nd Dafydd I, Prince of Gwynedd

GEOFFREY V's illegitimate son HAMELINE PLANTAGENET, m in 1163 as 2nd husband of Countess ISABEL de WARRENNE (see under Warrenne for descendants).

GEOFFREY V's illegitimate dau "Marie of France" wrote lais and became Abbess of Shaftesbury
- http://www.pcug.org.au/~ronwells/20-29.htm
 
Plantagenet, Geoffrey Count of Anjou and Maine, Duke of Normandy (I2698)
 
189
Goldsmith in Aldersgate Street - in partnership with Charles and Solomon Hougham and John East Dix - Solomon Royes was the last remaining partner in the firm after the partnership with John East Dix was dissolved 19 September 1818. His business was closed 1823.
Census 1841 gives age of 60 but all the ages in the Jersey census entries seem to be estimates rounded to the nearest 5.
- Reg. of Deaths No. 1394 Parish of St Helier, in the Island of Jersey- 9th Sep 1842.

See the article by Gillian West under Histories. This article describes Solomon Royes as a nephew of Solomon Hougham (who had a brother Charles). She says that Solomon Royes married Solomon Hougham's daughter Mary, and notes that Solomon Royes had been "fatherless from childhood". West's sources are not cited. The frequent occurrence of the Christian name Mordaunt in the Royes family suggests that we should stay with the data as we have it - that he married Mary Hougham whose grandmother was Sarah Mordaunt. Solomon Hougham appears to have died childless.

The third party of the Hougham-Royes-Dix partnership was John East Dix, wife Isabella Hookkham (marr, 1805, Finchely) children John, Isabella, Ann H., Katherine M., Robert Henry, Eliza A., Hougham and John East. Robert Henry married Frances Lagorsky in St Petersburg, Russia on 8 April 1841 and they had a son Edward A., born about 1847 in Kiev, Russia. Edward appears in the 1861 Census as living with his grandmother in London. - http://genforum.genealogy.com/dix/messages/790.html plus emails

----------
SOLOMON ROYES is a most enigmatic figure and the data we have raises many questions:
1. Why does his will (made in 1842, the year he died) exclude his sons. At least two (Charles, Edward) and perhaps six (when did Samuel, William, George II and Francis die?) were alive at the time of the will. Four daughters are the main beneficiaries so perhaps the other daughters had died by 1842 - Lydia b.abt 1801 or earlier, Caroline b. 1811, Sophia Mary b. 1812?
2. Why did the partnership with John East Dix last only one month (or one year, depending on the dates)?
3. Why did he close his business when only 48?
4. Why retire to the Channel Islands?
5. Is there something behind the fact that at least three sons and three daughters emigrated - to Jamaica and Australia (though two daughters subsequently returned to England)?
 
Royes, Solomon (I2225)
 
190
Harthacnut was the son of Canute and his second wife, Emma, the widow of Ethelred II. His father intended Hardicanute to become king of the English in preference to his elder brother Harold Harefoot, but he nearly lost his chance of this when he became preoccupied with affairs in Denmark, of which he was also king. Instead, Canute's eldest son, Harold Harefoot, became king of England as a whole.  In 1039 Hardicanute eventually set sail for England, arriving to find his brother dead and himself king.
Hardicanute, the son of Canute and Emma of Normandy, was born in 1018. He inherited Denmark on his father's death in 1035, but was unable to come to England immediately to claim the throne. The Witan elected his half-brother, Harold Knutsson, as king instead.
Hardicanute organised an invasion of England but before he arrived, Harold died. He imposed a savage fleet-tax and this made him extremely unpopular with the English people. Hardicanute died in June 1042 after a drinking party.
 
Hardicanute King of England 1035-1042 (I3626)
 
191 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Hogan, Fr T.A. (I456)
 
192
He is on Knights visitation of 1619 as son of Solomon Hougham and thus "Stephen Hougham of Ash predict.and as father of Michael Hougham of Weddington and Richard Hougham of Eastry.
He is recorded in the will of his father as eldest son and as inheriting the manor of Weddington
He is buried in Ash Church according to will of his wife. The Register of Ash do not begin before date of his death in 1556
His will is in the probate office of Canterbury, location being Con. Vol 26 folio 90. It is dated 20 Nov 1556. It was proved 24 March 1557. In it he requeststo be buried in the church. He mentions "my wife Bennett", "my sons Michael and Richard", "Elizabeth my daughter" "my brother Thomas" "my brother in law John Brooke"
He bequeathes to his wife for her life time and then to his son Michael "The messuage in which they live various parcels of land in Ash and various leases of land. He bequeathes to son Michael The Manor of Waddington and lands called Rawborowe, lands at Pete End, Land at Middle Marsh Land at Salts, One Messuage called Baa or the Baywith its Gardens and the lands called Bayfield in Icham. He bequeathes to son Richard the Manor of Novells Pleete and lands called Kete Marsh, lands called Richborough fields, "My messuage and landscalled Pricketts and all my lands in Preston and Elmstead. To his brother Thomas land at Preston "Which I had on the Death of my mother"

"The family of Hougham, a knightly race, taking their name from the manor of Hougham, Huffam or Hicham, as it is spelt in Domesday, near Dover.In Hicham or Hougham, a suling of land was held in the Conqueror's reign by one Baldwin; but whether a an ancestor of this family or not, we cannot pretend to say. The parish of Hougham was part of the lands given by the Conqueror to Fulbert de Lucy, called "of Dover", "for the Barony of Fulbert, as it was called, of which Chillam Castle was the chief seat, or "caput baroniae"; and we consequently find Hougham held by knight's service in the time of Edward III." A Corner of Kent--by J. R. Planche"

WILL: Date: 23 Mar 1555 Place: willed to Richard Hougham all his rents, suit & service of, Ash England
Quality: 0 (Date was given in record as 23 Mar 1555/1556.) manor of In Hicham Baldwin; say. Fulbert called, of Edward III."
 
Hougham, Stephen (I2105)
 
193
He is recorded in knights Visitation 1619 as son of Stephen Hougham, and his children are given as Richard Hougham son and Heir, married Elizabeth Saunders, and Stephen Hougham of Northborne married Joan Beake.
He is recorded on Baptism of his children in Ash church register as Ann, Michael, Richard, Stephen, Thomas.
By his fathers will he inherits the Manor of Weddington, the house in which his father lived in Ash and all lands thereto, silver etc, stock etc.. In addition lands in Ash specified as bought off certain persons at various times, lands called Rowborowe, the Salts, Pete End, Mddle Marsh, Wete Marsh and Leasehold lands indicated by owners also and one half of his father's remaining goods and Stock.
He is named in his mother's will as Michael Hougham my son - Benetta Hougham Will proved 14 Oct 1560
He is recorded in Paramour Pedigree, Knights visitation as father of Ann, married Thomas Paramour now living (1619) and Mayor of Canterbury. His daughter Benetta is given as married to Thomas Contry of Bekesbourne
He is recorded on memorial stone in Ash church as father of Michael and Richard
His will was proved 10 Dec 1583 and names his three sons Michael Stephen and Richard and his three daughters Ann, Bennett and Elizabeth

1581/82 A "Mich Huffam" supported a Licence to Teach for John Drake
 
Hougham, Michael of Ash (I2109)
 
194
He is recorded in the Knights Visitation of Kent 1619 as son of William Hougham (Note "de" dropped) and as father of Stephen.
He is pictured in stained glass in St Nicholas Church, Ash, but it is not the original. A drawing of the original is in the British Museum as additional MSS no 5479. It should be noted that on his tabard are the arms newly acquired for quartering with the original coat of Hougham, and that he is depicted with spurs signifying that he had received Knighthood. It was so customary for the Knights to qualify for Knighthood that special use of title was seldom used in documents.
His will is in the Archdeaconry Register of Canterbury Vol 13 folio 172. It was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in 1518. He describes himself in it as Solomon Hougham of Preston (near Ash). He asks to be buried in Preston Church. He leaves stock to the church of Ash to keep an obit once a year on 5 Aug. The will records that he owns the Manor of Weddington in Ash, estates at Ware estates in Nell parish. He names his children as Stephen, Thomas, William, Solomon, Joan.

KGR and Greta Gordon have wife as Agnes but I cannot find any other support for this. RY has wife unknown. RY has another Solomon who died same year as this one, son of another Solomon, son of John (and Joan Blameter)
 
Hougham, Solomon (I1516)
 
195
He is recorded on Derring Role of Arms as son of Robert de Hougham 1
He is recorded in an assessment of holders of Knights fees at the knighting of the king's son anno 38 Henry 3 (1253/4)
He is recorded as holding in the Hendredum of Beasburgh the following- The manor of Hougham near Dover, entry 85, The Manor of Hawkinge near Folkestone, entry 166, the Manor of Boughton Monchenesy, entry 146
He is recorded on an inquisition dated July 1258 as holding at time of his death the manor of Wavering by the same Knights service as given for his father
He is recorded on another inquisition at his death. It is headed thus "A writ to inquire how much land Robert de Hougham held of the Knights capite. Tested at Westminster 26 July King Henry 6" (1257/8). In it it is recorded that He owned the manor of Boxley [Didn't Rober t 1 give this away?- RY]. He owned a mill and land at Farlech county Kent. He owned the estate of Hope House near Folkestone. He owned lands in Maidstone and other lands and a weir at and near Maidstone. The writ endnds "and Robert de Hougham his son is the next heir and is 8 yea rs old". This gives the date of his death as just prior to 26 July 1258 and his son as born 1250. It does not give all his lands as other lands in other Hundredums of the county had their inquisitions, also other lands held of the King by Knights service are stated.
He is recorded on a livery of his sons fiefe- lands (see next Robert) which states that he owned the manor of Hougham, the manor of Borton Monchenessy, the manor of Wavering, the manor of Dolleham, Sussex where Beatrice died 24 June 1274
References:
Derring Role of Arms, 1253-4 assessment Knights fee entry 85, 166, 146.
Inquisition on death 1258
Livery of Fiefs lands 1274

Died in the 41st of Henry III [1257]. "He was of Manor of Waveringe, Constable of Rochester Castle, Lord of [Hougham-Hurley Genealogical Record]
 
de Hougham, Robert II (I2101)
 
196
He is recorded on Derring role of Arms as the son of the above Robert de Hougham
He is recorded as son and next of kin of his father Robert de Hougham and as 8 years old 26 July 1258 on inquisition of fathers fiefes
He is recorded in a livery of his fiefe land 24 June 1274 when he made proof of his age 24 years to obtain his inheritance as son and heir of Robert de Hougham deceased who held the Manor of Hougham,The Manor of Bockton Monchenessy, the manor of Wavering, Dolleham, Sussex.
He is recorded on Rotary Eschest Roll at the time of his death 2nd King Edward 1 (1274) as holding the manor of Wavering by the same Knights service defined for the first Robert.
He was siesed of Hope House an estate in the northern parish of Folkestone on his death ("siesed" and "fiefed" are the same word meaning possessed of the fiefe of; owned by Knights service).
He died Constable of Rochester Castle in the second year of King Edward 1 (1273/74) See http://www.castles-abbeys.co.uk/Rochester-Castle.html
References:
Derring role of Arms
Inquisition 1258
Livery of Fiefe lands 1274
1274 Rotary Esc. Role no 14
Inquisition 1274
Records of Rochester Castle

Family Search records one Robert who similarly died 1274 but was born 1212
and a Robert who was almost-similarly born 1251 and who died before 18 Jul 1316 and was married to Beatrice. He also had a sister Beatrice born 1259.
Note that Robert II (1175-1258) was married to a Beatrice. When there are five Robert's in a sequence, it gets confusing! However, the evidence that this Robert was 8 years old when his father died means I have stayed with Robin Young's info and added the Beatrice's to both Robert II and Robert III., ,

See also http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I41485&tree=Dodge
 
de Hougham, Robert III (I1758)
 
197
He is recorded on the Derring Role of Arms as son of the above Robert de Hougham and as father of the 5th Robert de Hougham.
He had a suite with a relative John de Hougham regarding lands at Hougham 30 Dec 1286
He is recorded as one of the Jurats of Ash next Sandwich in the Placita de Quo Warrento in 1293 at which time he owned the manor of Weddington in Ash
He obtained licence for him to alienate to Saint Radigwids Abbey by Dover, 63 acres of pasture at Hawkinge Kent 15 June 1293

He was fined 20 m (?) for "forest trespass in Ess" ie hunting the Royal Deer in the forest of Ash which adjoined his manor of Weddington in 1295 He obtained quittance of the fine in consideration of a horse lost at Dover fighting against the French Grant of Quittance of fine made in close role dated 25 Aug 1295. (Dover was burned by the French in 1295 and so much damaged that for many years it did not recover)
He fought throughout the battle of Dover against the French under their Admiral Matthew of Montmorenci according to the close roles dated 25 Aug 1295. In this and all subsequent documents he is referred to as Sir Robert de Hougham
He was Summoned to serve in Flanders 24 Nov 1297
He was summoned with the recurrence of fighting to serve in Flanders again in 1298
He was summoned to serve against the Scots in a parliamentary writ dated 8 Jan 1298
He is recorded in an inquisituion of his fiefe land held of the King The inquisition is date d 18 April 29 Edward 1 (1301) It is Rotary Escheat Role no 48
He had recently died, as inquisition is on lands on death.It records that he owned the Manor of Hougham, the Manor of Waveri ng, the Manor of Boughton Monchenessy. He owned lands at Caldecote at Chiltone lands at Hope near Folkestone, land in Dover akk in Kent. and all by Knights service which perforce passed to his eldest son for similar service. This document ends thus and his son and heir Robert is 8 to 10 years old.
His manor of Weddington and his lands in Ash passed to his younger son Richard de Hougham of Ash who is recorded so in the college of arms MS27. This and all wills to time of Charles 1st (Given later ) show Weddington continuing with descendants of Richard. Alex de Baliol was made Custodian of Hougham Manor in the minority of the Heir 28 April 1302 and Guardian of the Heir.

References:
Derring Role of Arms
Fine Roles 1286,
The Placita de Quo Warrento 1293,
Patent Roles 1293,
Close Roles 1295
1297,8 Parliamentary Writs
Inquisition on Death 1301,
College of Arms MS27
Fine Roles 1302

The Manors of Kent. (From Sarah Lonsdale's article in Telegraph Property)
The manors are in and around the village of Ash near Canterbury. The remaining 6 houses of the original group of 16 are all now listed and although they have all been chopped about, added to and altered it is possible to see their original hall house construction in hidden roof beams, surviving fireplaces and the occasional exposed lathe and plaster walls.
The manor houses of Ash were unusual at the time of their construction during the late 14 and early 15 century in that although they were grand houses they were fairly close together and all in the same parish, in fact at the time the houses went up the presence of about 16 manor houses inhabited by knights, wealthty merchants and the odd inter married euro trash endowed the parish of Ash a grandeur it has not known since.
"Ash probably reached its social peak around then and has been going downhill ever since" says local historian David Downes, author of Ash an East Kent Village. The houses' unique nature, says Mr Downes, is due to both their proximity to Sandwich, and the way the land, originally owned by the church, was divided into little sub-manors. "At that time, Sandwich was the premier port of England, through which virtually the country's entire wool exports were shipped and, likewise, continental goods were imported.
"But the port of Sandwich itself was dirty, crowded and disease ridden so the wealthy merchants and knightly families who grew rich from Sandwich's trade set up home in the fresh healthy air of Ash"
All the land around Ash was originally part of the huge Manor of Wingham owned by the archbishops of Canterbury since before the Battle of Hastings. At their discretion, subsequent archbishops gave smaller sub-manors to family and well connected friends in exchange for various establishment duties, including keeping a watch out for possible French invasions along the Sandwich coast.
There were 12 of these sub manors in and around Ash, most with just one manor house, some with two, on their land. They still survive in the names of roads and farms as well as the remaining houses: Weddington, Molland, Chequer, Wingham Barton, Goshall, Fleet, Hills Court, Twitham Hills, Levericks, Overland, Chilton, Uphousden, Knell, Hoaden, Paramour and Goldstone.
Historian Edward Hasted in his "The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent" , published in 1778 writes of the Ash manor houses "which being inhabited by families of reputation and good rank in life made this parish of much greater account than it has been for many years past"
 
de Hougham, Robert IV (I1504)
 
198
He is recorded on the Knights Visitation of Kent which was taken 1619-1621 by John Philipot Roughe Dragon Marshall and Deputy to Wiilliam Camden Clarenceaux. It was made to establish the ancestry and pedigree of those at that time entitled to bebear the arms tricked. The official copy is in the College of Arms and bears the press mark c16. In it the pedigree for Hougham has added to the Coat of Arms a quartering which was sometime quartered afterwards by the descendants. He is given as father of Solomon. He is recorded as son of Robert de Hougham.

Note that there are two recorded sets of parents for William in this data. Ireland's History of Kent records a John Hougham as father of William whose wife is Elizabeth. Given the above, this is almost certainly incorrect or a different William. George Roy follows History of Kent and therefore has William as the son of a John Hougham died 1482, buried St Martin's Canterbury, married to Joan died 1503. According to this source, they had four children - William (married Elizabeth, one son Solomon), Solomon (d before 1482, son Solomon), Dionisia, Jovina. There is a comparative chart at http://royroyes.net/spt_resources/Comparison-origins-w.gif
 
Hougham, William (I201)
 
199
He was miner of Crocodile Creek and she was Mothers Assistant of Three Mile Creek
Daughter of Joseph Olive and Ann Ley or (Lay).

From May Crow Ravenswood Remembered (1997, Ravenswood Restoration and Preservation Association Inc.) p 11:
"The Royes lived over near the Showgrounds. They had a very big family but when I knew them Mrs Royes lived there with her son Arthur and her granddaughter Olive. Mrs Royes was an excellent cook and I have heard that she ran a cake shop at one time. I was friendly with Olive, and it was one of my treats to spend a night at her house."
It was common for grandparents to bring up grandchildren born out of wedlock. Her daughter Jane was 21 when Olive was born and she married nearly six years later, possibly in Home Hill - she certainly settled there. The above quote ("one of my ttreats was to spend a night at her house") suggests that Olive may have been between, say, 5 (at school) and 12 (when her grandmother died in mid 1927). This brings us to 1920-1927 as the framework for the above quote. The fact that the household apparently consisted only of mum, Arthur and Olive raises questions about where husband George was. His occupation is miner so he may have been based at a mining camp. He is on the Australian Electoral Roll for 1925 as living at home in Deighton St (or Bowen Road) though he may not have amended his Electoral Roll entry when it was published. He died in Home Hill.
From Deb Sara (4 Sep 2011): "Apparently she went to work at the convent in Ravenswood some time after her grandmother died; as far as I know she worked as a domestic. In 1933 she married the son of someone at the convent - the housekeeper I think it was."
 
Olive, Jane Ley (I732)
 
200
Henry I's daughter Matilda invaded England in 1139 to claim the throne, and the country was plunged into civil war. Although anarchy never spread over the whole country, local feuds were pursued under the cover of the civil war; the bond between the King (Stephen) and the nobles broke down, and senior figures (including Stephen's brother Henry) freely changed allegiances as it suited them.

Date of marriage or birth probably not correct

----------
m Geoffrey in 1128 as 2nd husband when 25 yrs old. MATILDA (Maud) "the Empress", only surviving legitimate child and heiress of King HENRY I , d 1169. Her 1st husband was the Holy Roman (German) Emperor Heinrich V. Prior to marriage with GEOFFREY she'd been in love with STEPHEN de Blois.

Children
    King HENRY II, b 1133 (see under England, Kings, for descendants)
    Geoffrey, d 1158, Comte de Nantes
    Guillaume, d 1164, Comte de Poitou
-http://www.pcug.org.au/~ronwells/20-29.htm [under "Geoffrey V")
 
Matilda or Maud (I2696)
 

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