genealogy of the Roy and Royes families
First Name:  Last Name: 
Maiden Married
[Advanced Search]  [Surnames]



Matches 1 to 200 of 2,628

      1 2 3 4 5 ... 14» Next»

 #   Notes   Linked to 
1 "Crosslands" Cameron, Donald (I3931)
2 "Crosslands" Cameron, Mary (I3932)
3 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3555)
4 "H" could be Hutchinson or Hougham?
"George H" is not listed in NSW Registry of Births Historical Index - where did the information come from?
Did he accompany family when they emigrated back to Jersey, UK? Not in 1851 Census with family at St Helier - would have been 12.
Did he die at birth or as a child?
Is the entry incorrect? 
Bell, George Hougham (I3477)
5 "James" based on the fact that he has a son James jr Snoddy, James (I2091)
6 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I160)
7 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I617)
8 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4101)
9 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I915)
10 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2176)
11 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1157)
12 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1002)
13 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I930)
14 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3844)
15 "of Ballysnod" Clements, Mary (I171)
16 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1648)
17 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F857
18 "Prospect House" Royes, Emily (I2260)
19 "Richard I" - Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
[Accessed September 30, 2003]:
born c. 932 died 996
byname Richard The Fearless, French Richard Sans Peur
duke of Normandy (942-996), son of William I Longsword.
Louis IV of France took the boy-duke into his protective custody, apparently intent upon reuniting Normandy to the crown's domains; but in 945 Louis was captured by the Normans, and Richard was returned to his people. Richard withstood further Carolingian attempts to subdue his duchy and, in 987, was instrumental in securing the French crown for his brother-in-law, the Robertian Hugh Capet. 
Richard I Duke of Normandy (I2778)
20 "Shackelwell" Tyssen, Samuel (I1255)
21 "St. Neot's, co. Huntingdon" FitzGilbert, Richard Earl of Clare (I3549)
22 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4130)
23 "The Glen" Bailey, John (I1871)
24 "The Parsonage" Bradley Jones, Margaret (I1866)
25 "The young couple's married life was of short duration, for Susannah and her little daughter soon followed each other to the grave." Matthews, Susannah (I1596)
26 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3970)
27 'Breelong' Cameron, Elizabeth (I3958)
28 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3956)
29 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3954)
30 'Breelong' Cameron, Elizabeth (I3958)
31 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3969)
32 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3970)
33 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3969)
34 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3969)
35 (Hutton Hall) - 1861 census Geggle, Margaret (I1299)
36 **A George Bailey died 1844 Sydney, St Lawrence's, NSW - born 1813
**A George H Bailey died in 1897 in Sydney, NSW, Australia 
Bailey, George (I1642)
37 ------------------------------
Husband: ~*Eystein Glumra "the Noisy" Ivarsson
Born: 810 at: Maer,Norway 47-37,647,233
Married: at:
Died: at:
Father:~*Ivar Halfdansson "King" of Sweden
Mother:~*daughter of Eyestien
Other Spouses:
Wife: ~*Ascrida Ragnvaldsdottir
Born: 812 at: Maer, Norway 47-37,647,234
Died: at:
Father:~*Ragnvald Olafsson "King" of Westfold
Mother:~*Tora Sigurdsdottir
Other Spouses:
Name: Sigurd I "Powerful" Eysteinsson "Earl" of Orkney
Born: at:
Married: at:
Died: at:
Name: Swanhilda Eysteinsdottir
Born: at:
Married: at:
Died: at:
Name: ~*Rognvald Eyenstein "the Wise" "Jarl" of Maerr
Born: 820 at: Maer, Norway 46-18,823,617
Married: at:
Died: 890 at: Maer, Norway
Spouses: ~*Ragnhild Hrolfsdottir ~*Groa
Ivarsson, Eystein Earl of Hedemarken (I2666)
38 -1856 running a pub Bromley, James Hindsley (I2283)
39 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2462)
40 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4162)
41 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3627)
42 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3953)
43 1. He is mentioned in Gillian West's article ( which seeks to trace the influence of Charles Dickens's godfather, Christopher Huffam, on Dombey and Son. He is referred to as son of Solomon and serving as an assistant surgeon with the East India Company who died at the company's establishment in Madras, India.

2. The following entry can be found in the Families in British India Society website:
Surname Royes
First Names: Solomon Hougham
Date: 23 Jul 1838
Entry: of Madras, Assistant Surgeon HEICS, bach., to Solomon Royes the father, £20, further grant 17 Mar 1843 to Benjamin Laurence & William Sanigear the executors of the said father, [d 11 Jan 1837, Lawrence of Old Fish St, London, gent., Sanigear of Lombard St, gent., entry at end of month, Estate Duty Registers], Pts
Source Name: Prerogative Court of Canterbury and Related Probate Jurisdictions: Administration Act Books
Source Repository: The National Archives
Source Repository Reference: PROB 6/214, 6/219, IR 26/257
[Note that "our" Solomon Royes died in 1842]

3. KGR has in his data the following:
British Library East India Company Medical Services.
Records of the Military Department
Entry to the military, medical and nursing services of the East India Company's Army (1753-1861) and the Indian Army (1861-1940)
Assistant Surgeons ' and Surgeons' Papers, EIC Medical Service (1804-1858) and Indian Medical Service (1858-1914)
FILE - Assistant-Surgeons' Papers (EIC) - ref. IOR/L/MIL/9/380 - date: 1827-1828
item: Rogers, Solomon Hougham [1827] - ref. IOR/L/MIL/9/380/57-62 [n.d.]
[In light of the other evidence, it is likely that "Rogers" is a misreading of "Royes"]

4. Several of his siblings have "Hougham" as their second name, no doubt reflecting the strong relationship between Solomon Royes senior and Solomon Hougham, who was his uncle but also appears to have played a leading role in fathering him after his father died when he was young. Solomon Royes senior is the major beneficiary of Solomon Hougham's will.

5. A "Solomon Royes junior" is a beneficiary of Samuel Hougham's will, distinct from "my nephew Solomon Royes the elder" - Lydia is referred to as the sister of Solomon junior

6. Did Solomon Hougham Royes visit Sydney? The Colonist, Sydney, 26 Dec 1838, lists unclaimed letters from the Government Gazette, including: Mr S.H. Royes, surgeon, Madras Army.  
Royes, Solomon Hougham (I3227)
44 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I6399)
45 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5882)
46 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5880)
47 10 children 1869-87 Thompson, Ann (I3693)
48 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2011)
49 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3953)
50 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3952)
51 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5889)
52 11 children born 1860-77 Bailey, George (I2029)
53 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I842)
54 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1265)
55 1180 he witnessed a grant between Hugh de Dover and the Abbotts and monks of St Berton, St Omar, France, the lands being in Kent, England. d' Avranches, William Lord of Folkestone (I2183)
56 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3940)
57 12 children Preston, Anne (I1884)
58 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2651)
59 1246 Count of Provence, Duke of Anjou
1265 King of Naples
1266 King od Sicily 
d' Anjou, Charles I (I3640)
60 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4775)
61 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1385)
62 13 children Perkins, Eleanor (I1874)
63 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I433)
64 1487 commanded a detachment of HENRY VII's troops in victory of over Lambert Simnel and remnants of the Yorkist party.
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
He was King's Counsel (K.C.).
In 1487 Speaker of the House of Commons.
In 1495 Serjeant-at-law.
In 1500 Justice of Chester.
In 1503 knighted 18 February 
Mordaunt, Sir John (I3680)
65 1487 commanded a detachment of HENRY VII's troops in victory of over Lambert Simnel and remnants of the Yorkist party.
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
He was King's Counsel (K.C.).
In 1487 Speaker of the House of Commons.
In 1495 Serjeant-at-law.
In 1500 Justice of Chester.
In 1503 knighted 18 February 
Mordaunt, Sir John (I3680)
66 15th Regiment Dickenson, Captain Henry Bacon Fector (I1384)
67 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I351)
68 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5203)
69 1712 or Apr 1715 Gotte, Samuel (I1622)
70 1822 Jan - Signatory to address from prisoners in Hyde Park Barracks expressing concern at the charges proceeding against Major Druitt and the hope that his innocence would be proved (Fiche 3048; 4/1830 No.183)
1822 Mar 4 - On Rose's road party; on list of men selected for clearing Mr Marsden's estate (Reel 6022; 4/7014 p.107)
1822 Dec 14 - Servant of Archibald Bell (Junior). Permitted to proceed with sheep over the Blue Mountains to Bathurst (Reel 6010; 4/3507 p.82) 
Preston, Joseph (I1821)
71 1841 and 1851 census Weatherburn, Margaret (I5861)
72 1841 and 1851 census Weatherburn, Esther (I5860)
73 1841 census Weatherburn, Christian (I4789)
74 1841 census Edminson, Margaret (I1916)
75 1841 census Weatherburn, James (I1912)
76 1861 census “Russia British Subject” Machin, Frank (I4821)
77 1861 Census: Edward A Dix, grandson of Isabella, born Kiev, Russia abt 1847, age 14, scholar living with Isabella Hookham, Isabella (I1369)
78 1861 Census: Edward A Dix, grandson of Isabella, born Kiev, Russia abt 1847, age 14, scholar. He does not seem to appear in subsequent English records so did he return to Russia after his schooling? Machin, Nathaniel (I4820)
79 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4219)
80 1871 Census: A John A Dix age 59, born London (c 1812), cotton trader, is married to Sara A Dix age 49, born Essex, living at 5 Glatter? Rd, St Pancras
Deaths: A John Dix b abt 1809 died 21 Feb 1831, Westminster and another 18 Jul 1818, City of London
1841 Census: John Dix, age 30, born Middlesex [London] (c 1811), carpenter, living at King St, Finsbury (parish St Luke) 
Dix, John (I4217)
81 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I887)
82 1900 A William Henry Carmichael born in Larne
1902 A William Henry Carmichael born in Larne
1910 A William Shaw Carmichael born in Larne
1902 A William Carmichael died in Belfast
1908 A William Henry Carmichael died in Larne 
Carmichael, William (I136)
83 1901 (31 March) Census: Residents of a house 9 in Harbour Road (Larne, Antrim)
to head
Family F2058
84 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F51
85 1903 Australian Electoral Roll at Mount Garnet, has Edmona/Edmons, domestic duties. Is Edmona a misreading for Ellenor? Robinson, Thomas Joseph (I794)
86 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5231)
87 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1296)
88 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5496)
89 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1006)
90 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F14
91 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F2498
92 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F10
93 1st Presbyterian
Witnesses Samuel Russell Roy, Mary McAlpin
Rev Samuel Edgar Stewart officiated 
Family F528
94 2 children:
1) Frances Ann born 13 March 1843, Mcdonald River, married 1863 to George Sternbeck;
2) Thomas Johnson born 1 December 1844, married 22 March 1876 to Luvenah Amelia Green, he died 29 June 1912 at Paynes Crossing. 
Bailey, Elizabeth (I2024)
95 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1413)
96 2006 living in Herne Bay, Kent, England Welman, Dennis (I5586)
97 23 Jan 1838 arrived Sydney on the Bencoolen with sister Emily.
Lived Ben Galla, Muswellbrook, New South Wales; The Hermitage, The Oaks, New South Wales
New South Wales Pioneer index Death recorded at Picton Reg No 7442 
Royes, Maria (I2261)
98 23 Jan 1838 arrived Sydney on the Bencoolen with sister Maria.

The Wikipedia article on Mark Bell states: "...his family travelled to England when he was an infant." The move would have taken place after 30 Oct 1848 when she acquired land at Botany, and before the 1851 Channel Islands census when the family is at St Helier, Jersey - so 1849-50 - when Mark is aged 6-7?

In the 1861 census her household included son Hutchinson, daughter Emily Elizabeth, son John, daughter Anne and niece Ellen Turner, with one visitor (probably a fellow student of Hutchinson) and three servants. Note the absence of George and Mark.

In the 1871 census an Emily Smith aged 47 has two daughters Elizabeth 26 and Anne 22 Bell, born in Australia. She also has step children:
Fanny Smith 14, Howard Smith 12, Agnes Smith 11 and Ernest Smith 9. There is a reference in Yseult Bridges' How did Charles Bravo Die? to Mary Hougham (Royes) Bravo having a sister married to Henry Smith. 
Royes, Emily (I2260)
99 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3960)
100 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1085)
101 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4251)
102 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1933)
103 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F50
104 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F5
105 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F4486
106 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F4487
107 3 children Irene, Isobelle, Tommy Family F4475
108 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3952)
109 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5940)
110 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2246)
111 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1723)
112 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2652)
113 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I265)
114 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I924)
115 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I351)
116 3rd earl de Corbeil, Earl Mauger (I2829)
117 4 children Crossley, Thomas (I1991)
118 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4628)
119 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3944)
120 5 children Smith, Elizabeth (I1873)
121 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F4485
122 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I636)
123 5th Baronet of Stainsley, Denbigh Meredith, Sir Roger MP (I1623)
124 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1724)
125 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3222)
126 7 children Crossley, John (I5885)
127 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5883)
128 7 children all baptised at Stow Murray, Isabel (I4043)
129 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1631)
130 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3946)
131 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3943)
132 8 months old at death Royes, Henry Hougham (I2259)
133 9 Aug [year unreadable] Milles, Mildred (I3380)
134 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5884)
135 9 children Crossley, Susannah (I5881)
136 9 Children Family F4488
137 9 years old Cover, Alexander Benjamin (I2129)
138 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4615)
139 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I851)
140 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1359)
141 St Luke Old Street
Lydia is identified as from "St Botolph's Aldersgate London" 
Family F1862
142 Dates are not correct since he is born after his children!
Born 11 January,1895 in New Ross. William arrived at Ellis Island, New York in December 1918 and again in March 1919 as a member of the crew of the oiltanker S.S. Shabonee but did not settle there. He spent much of his life at sea and died in a traffic accident in the USA. William married Maimie CUSACK from New Ross. 
Grangel, William (I3295)
143 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5100)
1180 he witnessed a grant between Hugh de Dover and the Abbotts and Monks of St Berton, St Omer, France, the lands being in Kent, England. ["Hougham-Hurley Genealogical Record", page 11]

The above reference is probably better attributed to William Brother of Robert 1 than William de Avranches.

William came to England with William the Conquerer taking the Name of the Town he left - Avranches. When William settled down, Willaim d' Avranches was made Lord of the manor of Hougham (an Anglo Saxon Manor near Dover) together with sundry other manors, and was one of the 8 Knights who were wardens over Dover Castle under John de Fienne.
He probably married Matilda, daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Devon, but no definite proof exists.
A window to his memory may be seen in Dover Castle.
Alternative view is that Robert d' Avranches's mother was one Adeliza de Moels of Normandy, cousin ( ie blood relation) to Richard, surnamed Goz, who was father of Hugh d' Avranches, the famous Earl of Chester. Installed Comte d' Avranches by William of Normandy (later William of England) in 1040. A member of the Ducal family of Normandy and a relative of Richard Goz whose son later became Ear l of Chester.

In the children, I have kept two Rualon/Robert entries because the information at this point is confusing and in conflict, but there are not two people - just the same person entered according to different sets of data.
d' Avranches, William (I2184)
The Book of Hougham (MHP) shows Wymund to be the son of Hrolf. However Wymund's dates - died 1109 (identified after publication of the Book of Hougham) - would seem to make this improbable. This is possibly Sur Guillaume Werlene Comte d' Avranches.
In a letter from the Dean of the faculty of Letters of Caen University, this Guillaume was father of William d' Avranches and was installed as Comte d' Avranches by William of Normandy in 1040.

From the Complete Peerage vol 4 page 317: Guitmond is the father of William d' Avranches

Planche A Corner of Kent p260.................... "
Contemporary with the Conqueror we find a William d' Avranches who was, according to Ordericus Vitalis, the son of Guitmond, Witmund, or Wymond, and cousin (i.e. blood relation) to Richard, surnamed Goz, father of Hugh d' Avranches, the famous Earl of Chester. The exact degree of relationship has yet to be proved; but it is no part of our present inquiry, and we shall not, therefore, encumber ourselves and our readers with more questions than are absolutely necessary.

William d' Avranches is not named in Domesday, but he appears to have been one of eight knights intrusted by John de Fiennes with the wardship of Dover Castle. There is some reason to believe that his wife was Emma, (according to others, Alicia - she was the widow of William Avenel, by whom she had Ralph Avenel, Baron of Okehampton, who married Matilda, daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Devon) a daughter of Baldwin de Brionne, Viscomte or Sheriff of Devonshire: but whoever might be his wife, by her he had a son, named Rualo or Ruallon, (and another, supposed to be the elder, named Robert, the adopted heir of his uncle, Richard de Brionne, and who recovered from his half-brother Ralph Avenel the barony of Okehampton) tto whom Henry I gave in marriage Matilda, the only child of Nigel de Muneville by his wife Emma d'Arques, and heiress of Folkestone. (She survived her husband, and gave to the church of St. Andrew, Northampton, for the good of her soul, the souls of her father, her husband, and her sons, the manor of Sywell, in the county of Northampton. This gift was confirmed by her son William in 1147.-Mon.Ang.vol.i.p.680.)

Guitmund (or Wymund or Witmund or Guitemonde or Wymcomde)
A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius; born at an unknown place in Normandy during the first quarter of the eleventh century; died between 1090- 95, at Aversa, near Naples. In his youth he entered the Benedictine monastery of La-Croix-St- Leufroy in the Diocese of Evreux, and about 1060 he was studying theology at the monastery of Bec, where he had Lanfranc as teacher and St. Anselm of Canterbury as fellow-student.

In 1070 King William the Conqueror called him to England and, as an inducement to remain there, offered him a diocese. The humble monk, however, not only refused the offer, but fearlessly denounced the conquest of England by the Normans as an act of robbery ("Oratio ad Guillelmum I" in P. L., CXLIX, 1509). He then returned to Normandy and became a staunch defender of the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation against the heretical Berengarius of Tours.

Some time between 1073-77 he wrote, at the instance of one of his fellow-monks by the name of Roger, his famous treatise on the Holy Eucharist, entitled "de corporis et sanguinis Jesu Christi veritate in Eucharistia". It is written in the form of a dialogue between himself and Roger and contains an exposition as well as a refutation of the doctrines of Berengarius concerning the Holy Eucharist. Guitmund ably defends Transubstantiation against Berengarius, but his notion of the manner of the Real Presence is obscure. Moreover, he does not well distinguish between substance and accident, and hence concludes that the corruptibility of the species is merely a deception of our senses. The work has often appeared in print. The first printed edition was brought out by Erasmus (Freiburg, 1530).

Shortly after Guitmund had published his treatise against Berengarius, he obtained permission from his abbot, Odilo, to make a pilgrimage to Rome. Because the name Guitmund had become too well known to suit the humble monk, he exchanged it for that of Christianus and lived for some time in the obscurity of a Roman monastery . When Urban II, who had previously been a monk at Cluny, became pope, he appointed Guitmund Bishop of Aversa, near Naples, in 1088. A few historians hold that he afterwards became a cardinal, but there seems not to be sufficient evidence for this assumption.

Besides the work mentioned above, Guitmund is the author of a short treatise on the Trinity and of an epistle to a certain Erfastus, which deals with the same subject. His works are published in "Bibl . Patr. Lugd.", XVIII, 440 sqq.; in Gallandi, "Bibl. veterum Patr.", XIV, 240 sqq., and Migne , "P. L.", CXLIX, 1427-1513.

The following is taken from The Mullins Family in Europe website but weould appear to be a different Guitmund:

Among these lords of a district in Normandy called Perche was one named Guismund (Guitmund), Seignieur de Moulins (Moulins-la-Marche). Guismund gained the feudal title through his fealty to Rollo's dynasty and his personal relationship as son-in-law to Walter of Falaise, who held title to Moulins-la-Marche (Mills-on-the-border).
Descendants of this Guismund became known as the Famille de Moulins. In 1066, a son-in-law of Guismund II, a Guillame (William) de Moulins-la-Marche, accompanied William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, in the Battle of Hastings (depicted here oon the Bayeux Tapestry <../Media/normanknightsbayeuxtapestry.jpg> ) which added to his title of Duke of Normandy, also the title of King of England and gave rise to the Plantagenet dynasty. William de Moulins became a Comte (Count) of Perche, and inherited title to his father-in-law's lands at Moulins-la-Marche and Bonmoulins. (from - no longer available) )
Even before William de Moulins fought the battle for England with William the Conqueror, there is another member of the family who is recorded in Normandy history. The record of Ursin de Moulins reveals the growing affinity between the former Norsemen and the Catholic Christianity of the Franks. Ursin de Moulins was probably a contemporary or a close descendant of Guitmund I, because Ursin de Moulins sold a large parcel of land near Caen in what is now Lower Normandy to Robert de Montgomery, a Norman noble who founded Troarn Abbey on the land which he bought from Ursin de Moulins about the year 1000 a.d., according to the records of the Comtes de Pontieu (Poitou??), 1026-1279. (For this information, I am indebted to a researcher whose genealogical work was located at but is no longer available)
d' Avranches, Wymund II (I2669)
A letter dated 1914, sent by Walter and Georgiana GILL's daughter, Georgiana Martha GILL, junior, to her aunt Elizabeth (my great-grandmother) says "The Walter Gills are flourishing, Royes is now the happy father of 2 daughters and is living aat Lowestoft." These 2 daughters would be Eveline Alice and Diana Royes, born 1912 and 1913, to Royes and Eva Le Fleming ENSOR. Georgiana also says "My dear sister Katie is still a sad invalid" - this would be her half-sister, Mary Catherine GILL (daughter of Mary QUICK), who died 1920. Georgiana also mentions Royes' sisters, Ida (Mary Ida GILL), and Vera (Alice Vera GILL), and "Mrs. Fulford and Janie".
Mrs. Fulford was Emma Sarah GILL who first married John William SHERRIFF (died 1891), then Robert Medley FULFORD.
Janie was Jane Taylor GILL ("Deaf and dumb from birth", like her brother Walter George).
Walter George's wife, Alice Mary Turner Bravo, was alive on the 1911 Census, "Deaf and dumb from age 5").
Georgiana also mentions "cousin Fred" - this was my grandfather, Frederick Rudolph Hay HORA, one of the 6 sons (there were also 3 daughters) of Henry Whinfield HORA and Elizabeth KING.
Georgiana signs her letter "Your loving Niece, Georgie M. ALKEN". Georgiana Martha GILL first married Charles IRVING (died 1889), then Rev. Henry Seffrien ALKEN.
Gill, Georgiana Martha (I1857)
A letter from Timothy to the compiler of the history (Marion Hurley Pratt) states: "Why I inferred the family was of Scandinavian origin was that my father wrote as follows - The Offams were of the oldest settled land owners in Kent and Sussex, they were lineal descendants of the raiding pirating Danes who ravaged the south coast of England demanding danegeld [a land tax levied in medieval England, originally to raise funds for protection against Danish invaders] and settled there wiith numerous followers two or three generations before the Northmen of Normandy invaded and conquered Britain. Some of the Houghams settled on the coast south of Dover and in the Isle of Thanet. They welcomed and assisted their kinsmen William of Normandy who after success awarded them gifts of land."

Also known as Count Regnvald ("the Rich") and as "The Wise", Earl of North and South More, of Raumsdale in Norway.

Till about the Year of Grace 860 there were no kings in Norway, nothing but numerous jarls,--essentially kinglets, each presiding over a kind of republican or parliamentary little territory; generally striving each to be on some terms of human neighborhood with those about him, but,-- in spite of "_Fylke Things_" (Folk Things, little parish parliaments), and small combinations of these, which had gradually formed themselves,-- often reduced to the unhappy state of quarrel with them. Harald Haarfagr was the first to put an end to this state of things, and become memorable and profitable to his country by uniting it under one head and making a kingdom of it; which it has continued to be ever since. His father, Halfdan the Black, had already begun this rough but salutary process,--inspired by the cupidities and instincts, by the faculties and opportunities, which the good genius of this world, beneficent often enough under savage forms, and diligent at all times to diminish anarchy as the world's worst savagery, usually appoints in such cases,--conquest, hard fighting, followed by wise guidance of the conquered;--but it was Harald the Fairhaired, his son, who conspicuously carried it on and completed it. Harald's birth-year, death-year, and chronology in general, are known only by inference and computation; but, by the latest reckoning, he died about the year 933 of our era, a man of eighty-three.

The business of conquest lasted Harald about twelve years (A.D. 860-872?), in which he subdued also the vikings of the out-islands, Orkneys, Shetlands, Hebrides, and Man. Sixty more years were given him to consolidate and regulate what he had conquered, which he did with great judgment, industry and success. His reign altogether is counted to have been of over seventy years.

The beginning of his great adventure was of a romantic character.--youthful love for the beautiful Gyda, a then glorious and famous young lady of those regions, whom the young Harald aspired to marry. Gyda answered his embassy and prayer in a distant, lofty manner: "Her it would not beseem to wed any Jarl or poor creature of that kind; let him do as Gorm of Denmark, Eric of Sweden, Egbert of England, and others had done,--subdue into peace and regulation the confused, contentious bits of jarls round him, and become a king; then, perhaps, she might think of his proposal: till then, not."

Harald was struck with this proud answer, which rendered Gyda tenfold more desirable to him. He vowed to let his hair grow, never to cut or even to comb it till this feat were done, and the peerless Gyda his own. He proceeded accordingly to conquer, in fierce battle, a Jarl or two every year, and, at the end of twelve years, had his unkempt (and almost unimaginable) head of hair clipt off,--Jarl Rognwald (_Reginald_) of More, the most valued and valuable of all his subject-jarls, being promoted to this sublime barber function;--after which King Harald, with head thoroughly cleaned, and hair grown, or growing again to the luxuriant beauty that had no equal in his day, brought home his Gyda, and made her the brightest queen in all the north. He had after her, in succession, or perhaps even simultaneously in some cases, at least six other wives; and by Gyda herself one daughter and four sons.

Harald was not to be considered a strict-living man, and he had a great deal of trouble, as we shall see, with the tumultuous ambition of his sons; but he managed his government, aided by Jarl Rognwald and others, in a large, quietly potent, and successful manner; and it lasted in this royal form till his death, after sixty years of it.

These were the times of Norse colonization; proud Norsemen flying into other lands, to freer scenes,--to Iceland, to the Faroe Islands, which were hitherto quite vacant (tenanted only by some mournful hermit, Irish Christian _fakir_, or so); still more copiously to the Orkney and Shetland Isles, the Hebrides and other countries where Norse squatters and settlers already were. Settlement of Iceland, we say; settlement of the Faroe Islands, and, by far the notablest of all, settlement of Normandy by Rolf the Ganger (A.D. 876?).[2]

Rolf, son of Rognwald,[3] was lord of three little islets far north, near the Fjord of Folden, called the Three Vigten Islands; but his chief means of living was that of sea robbery; which, or at least Rolf's conduct in which, Harald did not apppprove of. In the Court of Harald, sea-robbery was strictly forbidden as between Harald's own countries, but as against foreign countries it continued to be the one profession for a gentleman; thus, I read, Harald's own chief son, King Eric that afterwards was, had been at sea in such employments ever since his twelfth year. Rolf's crime, however, was that in coming home from one of these expeditions, his crew having fallen short of victual, Rolf landed with them on the shore of Norway, and in his strait, drove in some cattle there (a crime by law) and proceeded to kill and eat; which, in a little while, he heard that King Harald was on foot to inquire into and punish; whereupon Rolf the Ganger speedily got into his ships a again, got to the coast of France with his sea- robbers, got infeftment by the poor King of France in the fruitful, shaggy desert which is since called Normandy, land of the Northmen; and there, gradually felling the forests, banking the riversrs, tilling the fields, became, during the next two centuries, Wilhelmus Conquaestor, the man famous to England, and momentous at this day, not to England alone, but to all speakers of the English tongue, now spread from side to side of the world in a wonderful degree. Tancred of Hauteville and his Italian Normans, though important too, in Italy, are not worth naming in comparison. This is a feracious earth, and the grain of mustard-seed will grow to miraculous extent in some cases.

Harald's chief helper, counsellor, and lieutenant was the above-mentioned Jarl Rognwald of More, who had the honor to cut Harald's dreadful head of hair. This Rognwald was father of Turf-Einar, who first invented peat in the Orkneys, finding thhe wood all gone there; and is remembered to this day. Einar, being come to these islands by King Harald's permission, to see what he could do in them,--islands inhabited by what miscellany of Picts, Scots, Norse squatters we do not know,--found the indispensable fuel all wasted. Turf-Einar too may be regarded as a benefactor to his kind. He was, it appears, a bastard; and got no coddling from his father, who disliked him, partly perhaps, because "he was ugly and blind of an eye,"--got no flattering even on his conquest of the Orkneys and invention of peat. Here is the parting speech his father made to him on fitting him out with a "long-ship" (ship of war, "dragon-ship," ancient seventy-four), and sending him forth to make a living for himself in the world: "It were best if thou never camest back, for I have small hope that thy people will have honor by thee; thy mother's kin throughout is slavish."

Harald Haarfagr had a good many sons and daughters; the daughters he married mostly to jarls of due merit who were loyal to him; with the sons, as remarked above, he had a great deal of trouble. They were ambitious, stirring fellows, and grudged at their finding so little promotion from a father so kind to his jarls; sea-robbery by no means an adequate career for the sons of a great king, two of them, Halfdan Haaleg (Long-leg), and Gudrod Ljome (Gleam), jealous of the favors won by the great Jarl Rognwald. surrounded him in his house one night, and burnt him and sixty men to death there. That was the end of Rognwald, the invaluable jarl, always true to Haarfagr; and distinguished in world history by producing Rolf the Ganger, author of the Norman Conquest of England, and Turf-Einar, who invented peat in the Orkneys. Whether Rolf had left Norway at this time there is no chronology to tell me. As to Rolf's surname, "Ganger," there are various hypotheses; the likeliest, perhaps, that Rolf was so weighty a man no horse (small Norwegian horses, big ponies rather) could carry him, and that he usually walked, having a mighty stride withal, and great velocity on foot.

One of these murderers of Jarl Rognwald quietly set himself in Rognwald's place, the other making for Orkney to serve Turf-Einar in like fashion. Turf-Einar, taken by surprise, fled to the mainland; but returned, days or perhaps weeks after, ready for battle, fought with Halfdan, put his party to flight, and at next morning's light searched the island and slew all the men he found. As to Halfdan Long-leg himself, in fierce memory of his own murdered father, Turf-Einar "cut an eagle on his back," that is to say, hewed the ribs from each side of the spine and turned them out like the wings of a spread-eagle: a mode of Norse vengeance fashionable at that time in extremely aggravated cases!

Harald Haarfagr, in the mean time, had descended upon the Rognwald scene, not in mild mood towards the new jarl there; indignantly dismissed said jarl, and appointed a brother of Rognwald (brother, notes Dahlmann), though Rognwald had left other sons. Which done, Haarfagr sailed with all speed to the Orkneys, there to avenge that cutting of an eagle on the human back on Turf-Einar's part. Turf-Einar did not resist; submissively met the angry Haarfagr, said he left it all, what had been done, what provocation there had been, to Haarfagr's own equity and greatness of mind. Magnanimous Haarfagr inflicted a fine of sixty marks in gold, which was paid in ready money by Turf-Einar, and so the matter ended.

Constantine II (900-943)
One of the greatest of early Scottish kings, his long reign (900-943) being proof of his power during a period of dynastic conflicts and foreign invasions. During the first part of his reign the kingdom was still beset by the Norsemen. In his ththird year they wasted Dunkeld and all of Alba. They were repulsed, however, in Strathearn the following year. In his eighth year Rognwald, the Danish king of Dublin, with earls Ottir and Oswle Crakaban, ravaged Dunblane. Six years later the same leaders were defeated on the Tyne by Constantine in a battle whose site and incidents are told in conflicting stories; it appears certain, however, that Constantine saved his dominions from further serious attacks by the Vikings.

In spite of his wars, Constantine found time in the early part of his reign for two important reforms, one ecclesiastical and the other civil. In his sixth year (906) he established the Scottish church, which the Pictish kings had earlier suppressed. Two years later, on the death of Donald, king of the Britons of Strathclyde, Constantine procured the election of his own brother Donald to that kingdom.

He had now to meet a more formidable foe, the West Saxons, whose kings were steadily moving northward. In league with other northern kings, Constantine was decisively defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh (937) by King Athelstan. The slaughter was devastating. A son of Constantine was slain, as were four kings and seven earls. Constantine himself escaped to Scotland, where in old age he resigned the crown for the tonsure and became abbot of the Culdees of St. Andrews. He was succeeded by a cousin, Malcolm I.
Eysteinsson, Rognvald Earl of Møre and the Orcades (I2663)
Acceded 1130.

Son of William by Maud. [Hasteds History of Kent Vol 3 page 370]

This name Rualon, who married Maud de Muneville, heiress of Folkestone, being most capriciously spelt, not only Roellandus, Ruellinus, Roelent, Rualo, and Ruallon, but also Graalandus and Graelent, - Planche

Did Rualon have a brother Robert? [See notes on his possible grandfather Guitmond/Wymond]
Are Rualon and Robert the same person? Many genealogists seem to think so, but not all.
Did Rualon marry twice?
There seems to be a lot of confusion at this point in the family tree!

In 1066 STANTON [a manor in Oxfordshire], including land in South Leigh, was held by Alnod, and in 1086 by Odo of Bayeux: it was reckoned at 26 hides, of which one lay in Hanborough and was given to Oseney abbey c. 1138. Another 1 ? hide in 'Pereio', probably in South Leigh, and held under Odo by Wadard, was apparently absorbed into the main Stanton estate before the late 12th century. Following Odo's forfeiture the estate was held possibly by Ranulf Flambard, and in 1101 by Rualon d'Avranches, perhaps in custody. [Hist. Mon. Abingdon (Rolls Ser.), ii. 84-5; Royal Writs Eng. (Selden Soc. lxxvii), p. 485] Before 1130 Henry I gave it to his second wife Queen Adela, who alienated it piecemeal, mostly after 1135.
-'Stanton Harcourt: Manors and other estates', A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 12: Wootton Hundred (South) including Woodstock (1990), pp. 274-81. URL: Date accessed: 20 August 2005.
d' Avranches, Rualon Sheriff of Kent (I2181)
Adela. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 30, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

born 1062? died 1137
French Adéle  daughter of William I the Conqueror of England and mother of Stephen, king of England, whose right to the throne derived through her.

Adela was married to Stephen, count of Meaux and Brie, in 1080 at Breteuil. Upon the death of his father in 1090, her husband succeeded to the countships of Blois and Chartres. She took an active interest in civil and ecclesiastical affairs anand was instrumental in rebuilding the Cathedral of Chartres in stone. In 1095 she became regent when her husband, at her urging, took part in the First Crusade to the Holy Land. He returned in 1099 but left to join the Second Crusade in 1101 and was killed in battle at Ramula. Adela continued as regent during the minority of her sons and was increasingly active in public life.

Anselm, the archbishop of Canterbury, her guest and teacher in 1097, was often entertained by her between 1103 and 1105, and she helped to effect a temporary reconciliation between him and her brother the English king Henry I in regard to the ininvestiture controversy. In 1107 Adela entertained Pope Paschal II during Easter and in the following year was hostess to Bohemond I, prince of Antioch. She made her son Theobald her successor in 1109 and entered a convent in the diocese of Autun but continued to wield an important influence in public and clerical affairs. She persuaded Theobald to join her brother Henry I against the king of France in 1117.
of Normandy, Adele (I1040)
AKA Louis The Younger,  French Louis Le Jeune  Capetian king of France who pursued a long rivalry, marked by recurrent warfare and continuous intrigue, with Henry II of England.

In 1131 Louis was anointed as successor to his father, Louis VI, and in 1137 he became the sole ruler at his father's death. Louis married Eleanor, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine, in 1137, a few days before his effective rule began, and he thus temporarily extended the Capetian lands to the Pyrenees. Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestige of the kingship through an administrative government based on trustworthy men of humble origin and by cconsolidating his rule over his royal domains rather than by adding new acquisitions. From 1141 to 1143 he was involved in a fruitless conflict with Count Thibaut of Champagne and the papacy. But thereafter his relations with the popes were good; Alexander II, whom he supported against Frederick Barbarossa, took refuge in France. But the major threat to his reign came from Geoffrey, count of Anjou and, briefly, of Normandy, and Geoffrey's son Henry, who later (1154) became King Henry II of England as well as ruler of both Anjou and Normandy. After Louis repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on March 21, 1152, she married Henry, who then took over control of Aquitaine. Ironically, this act was probably to Capetian advantage because Aquitaine might have drained the resources of Louis's kingdom while bringing him little revenue. After the death of Louis's second wife, he married Alix of Champagne, whose Carolingian blood brought added prestige to the monarchy (1160); their son became Philip II Augustus.

Louis might have defeated Henry if he had made concerted attacks rather than weak assaults on Normandy in 1152. Anglo-Norman family disputes saved Louis's kingdom from severe incursions during the many conflicts that Louis had with Henry betweeen 1152 and 1174. Louis was helped by the quarrel (1164–70) between Henry and Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and a revolt (1173–74) of Henry's sons. Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, who acted as regent in 1147–49 while Louis was away on the Second Crusade, is the primary historian for Louis's reign.
-- Encyclopedia Britannica
Louis VII King of France (1137-1180) (I4061)
Alia Squire/ Bailey William was also known in his children's birth registrations (except Richard) as "Henry". This may have been his nickname to distinguish him from his father. William named his property "Clyde Farm", and the original homestead is still there, a stone built two-story cottage, now falling to pieces. Here, as with many of the Valley's old cottages, the main trouble was the lack of an adequate lime-mixture to bind the sandstone blocks. From the layout of the rooms it shows there was a front parlour with an open fireplace. Off this was the parent's bedroom, and from this a ladder ascended to the 'loft' above, where, with a rough division between the girls and boys, the family slept. As this upstairs area spread over most of the space below it was reasonably roomy even though dark by today's standards. Having a shingled roof, would have kept the area reasonably cool. A kitchen with a high-mantled fireplace led from the parlour, and off the kitchen at one end was a small room, probably used as a cool room or storeroom, where milk and other perishables could be kept for a short time. There was originally no glass in any of the windows, being at that time too expensive, instead wooden window shutters were used. As families worked from dawn to dusk, and retired to their beds quite early, very little light was needed. Oil lamps, later followed by kerosene lamps were used when needed.

THE 1842 WATERSPOUT According to the Sydney Morning Herald it was reported that a waterspout struck the neighbourhood of the Upper MacDonald. The violence of this stupendous aqueduct was principally on the farm of Mr Bailey, over which it descended and literally propelled four acres of ripe wheat a distance of upwards two hundred yards... Parties were to be seen running in every direction endeavouring to drive their cattle beyond the reach of the flood coming up The Branch. The waters gradually disappeared after the first grand burst, which is described by an eye witness as rolling onwards like a huge mountain.

Sources : NSW BDM Page 4233 Reg number 1865 St Albans NSW Page Ref V18202503 3A Witnesses to the marriage of William Bailey and Jane Knight were William ? and Price Morris who signed with an X Event Death: Reg no 4233/1865/St Albans/NSW

Cause of Death... Bilious fever

Like his brother John, William did not leave anything in his will to his first family. Everything went to Jane who in turn divided up the property amongst their children. Copies of both wills are held by Trevor Phee.
Bailey, William Henry (I1865)
Also called SAINT LOUIS, king of France from 1226 to 1270, the most popular of the Capetian monarchs. He led the Seventh Crusade to the Holy Land in 1248-50 and died on another crusade to Tunisia.
Early life.
Louis was the fourth child of King Louis VIII and his queen, Blanche of Castile, but, since the first three died at an early age, Louis, who was to have seven more brothers and sisters, became heir to the throne. He was raised with particular care by his parents, especially his mother.
Experienced horsemen taught him riding and the fine points of hunting. Tutors taught him biblical history, geography, and ancient literature. His mother instructed him in religion herself and educated him as a sincere, unbigoted Christian. Louis was a boisterous adolescent, occasionally seized by fits of temper, which he made efforts to control.
When his father succeeded Philip II Augustus in 1223, the long struggle between the Capetian dynasty and the Plantagenets of England (who still had vast holdings in France) was still not settled, but there was a temporary lull, since the English king, Henry III, was in no position to resume the war. In the south of France the Albigensian heretics, who were in revolt against both church and state, had not been brought under control. Finally, there was ferment and the threat of revolt among the great nobles, who had been kept in line by the firm hand of Philip Augustus.
Louis VIII managed to bring these external and internal conflicts to an end. In 1226 Louis VIII turned his attention to quelling the Albigensian revolt, but he unfortunately died at Montpensier on Nov. 8, 1226, on returning from a victorious expedition. Louis IX, who was not yet 13, became king under the regency of his redoubtable mother.
Feast day August 25.
Louis IX King of France (I3636)
153 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4218)
Angoulême: city, capital of Charente département, Poitou-Charente région, former capital of Angoumois, southwestern France. It lies on a high plateau above the junction of the Charente and Anguienne rivers, southwest of Limoges. Taken from the Visigoths by Clovis in 507, it was the seat of the counts of Angoulême from the 9th century. Fought over by the French and English in the Hundred Years' War, it also suffered in the religious wars of the late 16th century. The Land of Angoulême was the name given to the site of present-day New York City in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, who discovered the harbour while serving King Francis I, who was also count of Angoulême. Angoulême's 19th-century town hall occupies the site of the counts' château (birthplace of Margaret of Angoulême), of which two towers, the Valois (15th century) and the Lusignan (13th century), remain. The Cathedral of Saint-Pierre (1105–28; restored 19th century) is a domed Romanesque-Byzantine structurure whose elaborate facade, enriched with Romanesque sculpture, contrasts sharply with the stark, aisleless interior. Angoulême's old city ramparts have been razed to make way for boulevards with extensive views.The city's diversified industries, mostly located in the surrounding suburbs, include papermaking and the manufacture of felt, iron, jewelry, bricks, and refrigerators. Pop. (1999) 43,171.

"Angouleme." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2003.  Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
08 Nov, 2003  
Aymer Count of Angouleme (I2911)
Arthur Hougham records Michael as son of Thomas Hougham and Alice Contry in the absence of any other evidence

Church warden in 1657

the pedigree from Michael is taken from the registers of Preston church and the spelling is Huffam throughout

Michael son of Henry bypasses his own brother and nephew and names Henry Hougham my kinsman heir, his own brother Henry having died in 1674

Does the following note pertain to this Michael?

COURT IN SESSION - ORDER BOOKS - East Kent - FILE - Order Book - ref. Q/SO/E/1 [n.d.] item: East Kent Order Book, Epiphany 1660/1 - ref. Q/SO/E1/f.48 [n.d.] [from Scope and Content] William Bing and Michael Huffam, two of the inhabitants of the parish of Preston, for the decay of a bridge in the parishes of Preston and Elmstone leading from Preston and Elmstone to Canterbury and Sandwich.

Memorial Inscription in Preston Church in the south aisle on a flat stone. Here lieth The Body of Michael HOUGHAM, Son of Henry Hougham who died A.D. 1679. Anno Aetatis 61
Huffam, Michael (I2575)
156 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I937)
Became Lord of Folkestone 1095

From "Corrections to Domesday Descendants" [ Corrections%20to%20Domesday%20Descendants.doc]...

Nigel de Monneuile

Norman, from Monville, Seine-Maritime, arr. Rouen, cant. Clères, according to Loyd, 69, but much more likely to have originated in the west of Normandy, at Muneville-le-Bingard, Manche. Occurs in Domesday Book holding of a moneyer in York; his pposition in the entry suggests he was associated with Robert of Mortain. Among two charters granting land at Le Bingard to Mont-Saint-Michel, one of them by Humphrey de Cambernon, a vassal of Robert of Mortain, was a grant by a certain Ralph, hihis wife Asa and son Nigel (Cartulary of Mont-Saint-Michel, fol. 35r). He occurs in 1093-6 among the knights of the archbishop of Canterbury, following his marriage to Emma, daughter of William of Arques, lord of Folkestone. Founder of Folkestone priory, a cell of Lonlay, c. 1095, and also a benefactor of Bermondsey priory (Mon. Ang. iv, 672; v, 96) in 1103. His heir at his death c. 1103 was his daughter Matilda, wife of Rualon d'Avranches (d. 1130-4) (ibid, iv, 674). His widow Emma married secondly Manasser count of Guînes.
de Monville, Nigel of Folkestone (I489)
Born at Wantage, Berkshire, in 849, Alfred was the fifth son of Aethelwulf, king of the West Saxons. At their father's behest and by mutual agreement, Alfred's elder brothers succeeded to the kingship in turn, rather than endanger the kingdom by passing it to under-age children at a time when the country was threatened by worsening Viking raids from Denmark.

Since the 790s, the Vikings had been using fast mobile armies, numbering thousands of men embarked in shallow-draught longships, to raid the coasts and inland waters of England for plunder. Such raids were evolving into permanent Danish settlemeents; in 867, the Vikings seized York and established their own kingdom in the southern part of Northumbria. The Vikings overcame two other major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, East Anglia and Mercia, and their kings were either tortured to death or fled. Finally, in 870 the Danes attacked the only remaining independent Anglo-Saxon kingdom, Wessex, whose forces were commanded by King Aethelred and his younger brother Alfred. At the battle of Ashdown in 871, Alfred routed the Viking army in a fiercely fought uphill assault. However, further defeats followed for Wessex and Alfred's brother died.

As king of Wessex at the age of 21, Alfred (reigned 871-99) was a strongminded but highly strung battle veteran at the head of remaining resistance to the Vikings in southern England. In early 878, the Danes led by King Guthrum seized Chippenham in Wiltshire in a lightning strike and used it as a secure base from which to devastate Wessex. Local people either surrendered or escaped (Hampshire people fled to the Isle of Wight), and the West Saxons were reduced to hit and run attacks ses seizing provisions when they could. With only his royal bodyguard, a small army of thegns (the king's followers) and Aethelnoth earldorman of Somerset as his ally, Alfred withdrew to the Somerset tidal marshes in which he had probably hunted as a youth. (It was during this time that Alfred, in his preoccupation with the defence of his kingdom, allegedly burned some cakes which he had been asked to look after; the incident was a legend dating from early twelfth century chroniclers.)

A resourceful fighter, Alfred reassessed his strategy and adopted the Danes' tactics by building a fortified base at Athelney in the Somerset marshes and summoning a mobile army of men from Wiltshire, Somerset and part of Hampshire to pursue guerrilla warfare against the Danes. In May 878, Alfred's army defeated the Danes at the battle of Edington. According to his contemporary biographer Bishop Asser, 'Alfred attacked the whole pagan army fighting ferociously in dense order, and by divine will eventually won the victory, made great slaughter among them, and pursued them to their fortress (Chippenham) ... After fourteen days the pagans were brought to the extreme depths of despair by hunger, cold and fear, and they sought peace'. This unexpected victory proved to be the turning point in Wessex's battle for survival.

Realising that he could not drive the Danes out of the rest of England, Alfred concluded peace with them in the treaty of Wedmore. King Guthrum was converted to Christianity with Alfred as godfather and many of the Danes returned to East Anglia where they settled as farmers. In 886, Alfred negotiated a partition treaty with the Danes, in which a frontier was demarcated along the Roman Watling Street and northern and eastern England came under the jurisdiction of the Danes - an area kknown as 'Danelaw'. Alfred therefore gained control of areas of West Mercia and Kent which had been beyond the boundaries of Wessex. To consolidate alliances against the Danes, Alfred married one of his daughters, Aethelflaed, to the ealdorman of Mercia -Alfred himself had married Eahlswith, a Mercian noblewoman - and another daughter, Aelfthryth, to the count of Flanders, a strong naval power at a time when the Vikings were settling in eastern England.

The Danish threat remained, and Alfred reorganised the Wessex defences in recognition that efficient defence and economic prosperity were interdependent. First, he organised his army (the thegns, and the existing militia known as the fyrd) on a rota basis, so he could raise a 'rapid reaction force' to deal with raiders whilst still enabling his thegns and peasants to tend their farms.

Second, Alfred started a building programme of well-defended settlements across southern England. These were fortified market places ('borough' comes from the Old English burh, meaning fortress); by deliberate royal planning, settlers received plots and in return manned the defences in times of war. (Such plots in London under Alfred's rule in the 880s shaped the streetplan which still exists today between Cheapside and the Thames.) This obligation required careful recording in what became known as 'the Burghal Hidage', which gave details of the building and manning of Wessex and Mercian burhs according to their size, the length of their ramparts and the number of men needed to garrison them. Centred round Alfred's royal palace in Winchester, this network of burhs with strongpoints on the main river routes was such that no part of Wessex was more than 20 miles from the refuge of one of these settlements. Together with a navy of new fast ships built on Alfred's orders, southern England now had a defence in depth against Danish raiders.

Alfred's concept of kingship extended beyond the administration of the tribal kingdom of Wessex into a broader context. A religiously devout and pragmatic man who learnt Latin in his late thirties, he recognised that the general deterioration i in learning and religion caused by the Vikings' destruction of monasteries (the centres of the rudimentary education network) had serious implications for rulership. For example, the poor standards in Latin had led to a decline in the use of the charter as an instrument of royal government to disseminate the king's instructions and legislation. In one of his prefaces, Alfred wrote 'so general was its [Latin] decay in England that there were very few on this side of the Humber who could understand their rituals in English or translate a letter from Latin into English ... so few that I cannot remember a single one south of the Thames when I came to the throne.'

To improve literacy, Alfred arranged, and took part in, the translation (by scholars from Mercia) from Latin into Anglo-Saxon of a handful of books he thought it 'most needful for men to know, and to bring it to pass ... if we have the peace, that all the youth now in England ... may be devoted to learning'. These books covered history, philosophy and Gregory the Great's 'Pastoral Care' (a handbook for bishops), and copies of these books were sent to all the bishops of the kingdom. Alfred was patron of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (which was copied and supplemented up to 1154), a patriotic history of the English from the Wessex viewpoint designed to inspire its readers and celebrate Alfred and his monarchy.

Like other West Saxon kings, Alfred established a legal code; he assembled the laws of Offa and other predecessors, and of the kingdoms of Mercia and Kent, adding his own administrative regulations to form a definitive body of Anglo-Saxon law. ' 'I ... collected these together and ordered to be written many of them which our forefathers observed, those which I liked; and many of those which I did not like I rejected with the advice of my councillors ... For I dared not presume to set in writing at all many of my own, because it was unknown to me what would please those who should come after us ... Then I ... showed those to all my councillors, and they then said that they were all pleased to observe them' (Laws of Alfred, c.885-99).

By the 890s, Alfred's charters and coinage (which he had also reformed, extending its minting to the burhs he had founded) referred to him as 'king of the English', and Welsh kings sought alliances with him. Alfred died in 899, aged 50, and was buried in Winchester, the burial place of the West Saxon royal family.

By stopping the Viking advance and consolidating his territorial gains, Alfred had started the process by which his successors eventually extended their power over the other Anglo-Saxon kings; the ultimate unification of Anglo-Saxon England was to be led by Wessex. It is for his valiant defence of his kingdom against a stronger enemy, for securing peace with the Vikings and for his farsighted reforms in the reconstruction of Wessex and beyond, that Alfred - alone of all the English kings and queens - is known as 'the Great'.

Alfred the Great King of Wessex 871-899 (I2712)
Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon king (and his father's favourite saint), Edward the Confessor. Edward's parents were renowned for their patronage of the arts (his mother, EleaEleanor of Provence, encouraged Henry III to spend money on the arts, which included the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey and a still-extant magnificent shrine to house the body of Edward the Confessor), and Edward received a disciplined education - reading and writing in Latin and French, with training in the arts, sciences and music.

In 1254, Edward travelled to Spain for an arranged marriage at the age of 15 to 9-year-old Eleanor of Castile. Just before Edward's marriage, Henry III gave him the duchy of Gascony, one of the few remnants of the once vast French possessions of the English Angevin kings. Gascony was part of a package which included parts of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the King's lands in Wales to provide an income for Edward. Edward then spent a year in Gascony, studying its administration.

Edward spent his young adulthood learning harsh lessons from Henry III's failures as a king, culminating in a civil war in which he fought to defend his father. Henry's ill-judged and expensive intervention in Sicilian affairs (lured by the Popee's offer of the Sicilian crown to Henry's younger son) failed, and aroused the anger of powerful barons including Henry's brother-in-law Simon de Montfort. Bankrupt and threatened with excommunication, Henry was forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford in 1258, under which his debts were paid in exchange for substantial reforms; a Great Council of 24, partly nominated by the barons, assumed the functions of the King's Council.

Henry repudiated the Provisions in 1261 and sought the help of the French king Louis IX (later known as St Louis for his piety and other qualities). This was the only time Edward was tempted to side with his charismatic and politically ruthless godfather Simon de Montfort - he supported holding a Parliament in his father's absence.

However, by the time Louis IX decided to side with Henry in the dispute and civil war broke out in England in 1263, Edward had returned to his father's side and became de Montfort's greatest enemy. After winning the battle of Lewes in 1264 (after which Edward became a hostage to ensure his father abided by the terms of the peace), de Montfort summoned the Great Parliament in 1265 - this was the first time cities and burghs sent representatives to the parliament. (Historians differ as to whether de Montfort was an enlightened liberal reformer or an unscrupulous opportunist using any means to advance himself.)

In May 1265, Edward escaped from tight supervision whilst hunting. On 4 August, Edward and his allies outmanoeuvred de Montfort in a savage battle at Evesham; de Montfort predicted his own defeat and death 'let us commend our souls to God, because our bodies are theirs ... they are approaching wisely, they learned this from me.' With the ending of the civil war, Edward worked hard at social and political reconciliation between his father and the rebels, and by 1267 the realm had been pacified.

In April 1270 Parliament agreed an unprecedented levy of one-twentieth of every citizen's goods and possessions to finance Edward's Crusade to the Holy Lands. Edward left England in August 1270 to join the highly respected French king Louis IX oon Crusade. At a time when popes were using the crusading ideal to further their own political ends in Italy and elsewhere, Edward and King Louis were the last crusaders in the medieval tradition of aiming to recover the Holy Lands. Louis died o of the plague in Tunis before Edward's arrival, and the French forces were bought off from pursuing their campaign. Edward decided to continue regardless: 'by the blood of God, though all my fellow soldiers and countrymen desert me, I will enter Acre ... and I will keep my word and my oath to the death'.

Edward arrived in Acre in May 1271 with 1,000 knights; his crusade was to prove an anticlimax. Edward's small force limited him to the relief of Acre and a handful of raids, and divisions amongst the international force of Christian Crusaders led to Edward's compromise truce with the Baibars. In June 1272, Edward survived a murder attempt by an Assassin (an order of Shi'ite Muslims) and left for Sicily later in the year. He was never to return on crusade.

Meanwhile, Henry III died on 16 November 1272. Edward succeeded to the throne without opposition - given his track record in military ability and his proven determination to give peace to the country, enhanced by his magnified exploits on crusadde. In Edward's absence, a proclamation in his name delcared that he had succeeded by hereditary right, and the barons swore allegeiance to him. Edward finally arrived in London in August 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Aged 35, he was a veteran warrior ('the best lance in all the world', according to contemporaries), a leader with energy and vision, and with a formidable temper.

Edward was determined to enforce English kings' claims to primacy in the British Isles. The first part of his reign was dominated by Wales. At that time, Wales consisted of a number of disunited small Welsh princedoms; the South Welsh princes wewere in uneasy alliance with the Marcher lords (feudal earldoms and baronies set up by the Norman kings to protect the English border against Welsh raids) against the Northern Welsh based in the rocky wilds of Gwynedd, under the strong leadership of Llywelyn ap Gruffyd, Prince of Gwynedd. In 1247, under the Treaty of Woodstock, Llywelyn had agreed that he held North Wales in fee to the English king. By 1272, Llywelyn had taken advantage of the English civil wars to consolidate his position, and the Peace of Montgomery (1267) had confirmed his title as Prince of Wales and recognised his conquests.

However, Llywelyn maintained that the rights of his principality were 'entirely separate from the rights' of England; he did not attend Edward's coronation and refused to do homage. Finally, in 1277 Edward decided to fight Llywelyn 'as a rebel aand disturber of the peace', and quickly defeated him. War broke out again in 1282 when Llywelyn joined his brother David in rebellion. Edward's determination, military experience and skilful use of ships brought from England for deployment along the North Welsh coast, drove Llywelyn back into the mountains of North Wales. The death of Llywelyn in a chance battle in 1282 and the subsequent execution of his brother David effectively ended attempts at Welsh independence.

Under the Statute of Wales of 1284, Wales was brought into the English legal framework and the shire system was extended. In the same year, a son was born in Wales to Edward and Queen Eleanor (also named Edward, this future king was proclaimed t the first English Prince of Wales in 1301). The Welsh campaign had produced one of the largest armies ever assembled by an English king - some 15,000 infantry (including 9,000 Welsh and a Gascon contingent); the army was a formidable combinatioion of heavy Anglo-Norman cavalry and Welsh archers, whose longbow skills laid the foundations of later military victories in France such as that at Agincourt. As symbols of his military strength and political authority, Edward spent some £80,0000 on a network of castles and lesser strongholds in North Wales, employing a work-force of up to 3,500 men drawn from all over England. (Some castles, such as Conway and Caernarvon, remain in their ruined layouts today, as examples of fortresses integrated with fortified towns.)

Edward's campaign in Wales was based on his determination to ensure peace and extend royal authority, and it had broad support in England. Edward saw the need to widen support among lesser landowners and the merchants and traders of the towns. The campaigns in Wales, France and Scotland left Edward deeply in debt, and the taxation required to meet those debts meant enrolling national support for his policies.
To raise money, Edward summoned Parliament - up to 1286 he summoned Parliaments twice a year. (The word 'Parliament' came from the 'parley' or talks which the King had with larger groups of advisers.) In 1295, when money was needed to wage war against Philip of France (who had confiscated the duchy of Gascony), Edward summoned the most comprehensive assembly ever summoned in England. This became known as the Model Parliament, for it represented various estates: barons, clergy, and knights and townspeople. By the end of Edward's reign, Parliament usually contained representatives of all these estates.

Edward used his royal authority to establish the rights of the Crown at the expense of traditional feudal privileges, to promote the uniform administration of justice, to raise income to meet the costs of war and government, and to codify the legal system. In doing so, his methods emphasised the role of Parliament and the common law. With the able help of his Chancellor, Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Edward introduced much new legislation. He began by commissioning a thorough survey of local government (with the results entered into documents known as the Hundred Rolls), which not only defined royal rights and possessions but also revealed administrative abuses.

The First Statute of Westminster (1275) codified 51 existing laws - many originating from Magna Carta - covering areas ranging from extortion by royal officers, lawyers and bailiffs, methods of procedure in civil and criminal cases to freedom of elections. Edward's first Parliament also enacted legislation on wool, England's most important export at the time. At the request of the merchants, Edward was given a customs grant on wool and hides which amounted to nearly £10,000 a year. Edward also obtained income from the licence fees imposed by the Statute of Mortmain (1279), under which gifts of land to the Church (often made to evade death duties) had to have a royal licence.

The Statutes of Gloucester (1278) and Quo Warranto (1290) attempted to define and regulate feudal jurisdictions, which were an obstacle to royal authority and to a uniform system of justice for all; the Statute of Winchester (1285) codified ththe policing system for preserving public order. Other statutes had a long-term effect on land law and on the feudal framework in England. The Second Statute of Westminster (1285) restricted the alienation of land and kept entailed estates within families: tenants were only tenants for life and not able to sell the property to others. The Third Statute of Westminster or Quia Emptores (1290) stopped subinfeudation (in which tenants of land belonging to the King or to barons subcontracted their properties and related feudal services).

Edward's assertion that the King of Scotland owed feudal allegiance to him, and the embittered Anglo-Scottish relations leading to war which followed, were to overshadow the rest of Edward's reign in what was to become known as the 'Great Cause'e'. Under a treaty of 1174, William the Lion of Scotland had become the vassal to Henry II, but in 1189 Richard I had absolved William from his allegiance. Intermarriage between the English and Scottish royal houses promoted peace between the two countries until the premature death of Alexander III in 1286. In 1290, his granddaughter and heiress, Margaret the 'Maid of Norway' (daughter of the King of Norway, she was pledged to be married to Edward's then only surviving son, Edward of Caernarvon), also died. For Edward, this dynastic blow was made worse by the death in the same year of his much-loved wife Eleanor (her body was ceremonially carried from Lincoln to Westminster for burial, and a memorial cross erected at every one of the twelve resting places, including what became known as Charing Cross in London).

In the absence of an obvious heir to the Scottish throne, the disunited Scottish magnates invited Edward to determine the dispute. In order to gain acceptance of his authority in reaching a verdict, Edward sought and obtained recognition from thhe rival claimants that he had the 'sovereign lordship of Scotland and the right to determine our several pretensions'. In November 1292, Edward and his 104 assessors gave the whole kingdom to John Balliol or Baliol as the claimant closest to the royal line; Balliol duly swore loyalty to Edward and was crowned at Scone.

John Balliol's position proved difficult. Edward insisted that Scotland was not independent and he, as sovereign lord, had the right to hear in England appeals against Balliol's judgements in Scotland. In 1294, Balliol lost authority amongst Scottish magnates by going to Westminster after receiving a summons from Edward; the magnates decided to seek allies in France and concluded the 'Auld Alliance' with France (then at war with England over the duchy of Gascony) - an alliance which was to influence Scottish history for the next 300 years. In March 1296, having failed to negotiate a settlement, the English led by Edward sacked the city of Berwick near the River Tweed. Balliol formally renounced his homage to Edward in April 1296, speaking of 'grievous and intolerable injuries ... for instance by summoning us outside our realm ... as your own whim dictated ... and so ... we renounce the fealty and homage which we have done to you'. Pausing to design and start the rebuilding of Berwick as the financial capital of the country, Edward's forces overran remaining Scottish resistance. Scots leaders were taken hostage, and Edinburgh Castle, amongst others, was seized. Balliol surrendered his realm and spent the rest of his life in exile in England and Normandy.

Having humiliated Balliol, Edward's insensitive policies in Scotland continued: he appointed a trio of Englishmen to run the country. Edward had the Stone of Scone - also known as the Stone of Destiny - on which Scottish sovereigns had been crowned removed to London and subsequently placed in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey (where it remained until it was returned to Scotland in 1996). Edward never built stone castles on strategic sites in Scotland, as he had done so successfully in Wales - possibly because he did not have the funds for another ambitious castle-building programme.

By 1297, Edward was facing the biggest crisis in his reign, and his commitments outweighed his resources. Chronic debts were being incurred by wars against France, in Flanders, Gascony and Wales as well as Scotland; the clergy were refusing to pay their share of the costs, with the Archbishop of Canterbury threatening excommunication; Parliament was reluctant to contribute to Edward's expensive and unsuccessful military policies; the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk refused to serve in Gascony, and the barons presented a formal statement of their grievances. In the end, Edward was forced to reconfirm the Charters (including Magna Carta) to obtain the money he required; the Archbishop was eventually suspended in 1306 by the new Gascon Pope Clement V; a truce was declared with France in 1297, followed by a peace treaty in 1303 under which the French king restored the duchy of Gascony to Edward.

In Scotland, Edward pursued a series of campaigns from 1298 onwards. William Wallace had risen in Balliol's name and recovered most of Scotland, before being defeated by Edward at the battle of Falkirk in 1298. (Wallace escaped, only to be captutured in 1305, allegedly by the treachery of a fellow Scot and taken to London, where he was executed.) In 1304, Edward summoned a full Parliament (which elected Scottish representatives also attended), in which arrangements for the settlement of Scotland were made. The new government in Scotland featured a Council, which included Robert the Bruce. Bruce unexpectedly rebelled in 1306 by killing a fellow counsellor and was crowned king of Scotland at Scone. Despite his failing health, Edward was carried north to pursue another campaign, but he died en route at Burgh on Sands on 7 July 1307 aged 68.

According to chroniclers, Edward requested that his bones should be carried on Scottish campaigns and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. However, Edward was buried at Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus (Hammer of the Scots) and Pactum serva (Keep troth). Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Exchequer paid to keep candles burning 'round the body of the Lord Edward, formerly King of England, of famous memory'.

Edward I King of England 1272-1307 (I2688)
160 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I865)
Convicted at the Lincoln Assizes 16 March 1789 and received a 14 years sentence. He sailed on the ‘Matilda’, a 460 tons vessel which was built at the French yards in 1779. Mathew Weatherhead was the Master and the ‘Matilda’ sailed from Portsmouth 27 March 1791 with a compliment of 230 male Convicts. She broke the record set by the ‘Mary Ann’ by making the passage from England to Port Jackson in 127 days – 16 days faster than her rival. It is thought that many of the 25 deaths suffered by the Convicts were due to the leaky state of the ship. Many were old and infirmed at the time they embarked. ‘Matilda’ arrived on 1 August 1791.
Bailey, William (I1868)
Duke of Normandy (1027-1035)

Robert was the second son of Richard II, Duke of Normandy 1027-1035, by his wife Judith, daughter of Conan le Tort (the Crooked), Count of Rennes, and sister of the half blood to Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany; and it was during the lifetime of hiis father, and while Robert was only Count of the Hiemois, and it may be in his nonage that he first saw Herleve, Harlett, or Arlot (for it is written in all manner of ways), daughter of a burgess of Falaise, an accident the results of which were the subjugation of England and the succession of a line of kings unsurpassed for valour and power by the greatest sovereigns in Europe.

Contributed to the restoration of Henri, King of France, to his throne, and received from the gratitude of that monarch, the Vexin, as an additional to his patrimonial domains. In the 8th year of his reign, curiosity or devotion induced him to undertake a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, where the fatigue of the journey and the heat of the climate so impaired his consitution he died on his way home. Some sources call him Robert I the Magnificent. -

ROBERT I. (d. 1035), called Robert the Devil, was the younger son of Richard II., duke of Normandy (d. 1026), who bequeathed to him the county of Exmes. In 1028 he succeeded his brother, Richard III., whom he was accused of poisoning, as duke of Normandy. His time was mainly spent in fighting against his rebellious vassals. At his court Robert sheltered the exiled English princes, Edward, afterwards King Edward the Confessor, and his brother Alfred, and fitted out a fleet for the purpose of restoring them to their inheritance, but this was scattered by a storm. When returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he died at Nicaea on the 22nd of July 1035. His successor as duke was his natural son, William the Conqueror, afterwards king of England. In addition to winning for him his surname, Robert's strength and ferocity afforded material for many stories and legends, and he is the subject of several poems and romances. -
Robert I Duke of Normandy (I2774)
Duke of Normandy (1087-1106)

ROBERT II. (c. 1054-1134) was the eldest son of William the Conqueror. Although recognized in boyhood as his father's successor in Normandy, he was soon dissatisfied with his position, and about 1078, following a quarrel between his brothers and himself, he revolted. He was obliged to fly from his own country, but after a period of exile he returned, raised some troops, and began to harry the duchy, wounding his father during a skirmish at Gerberoi early in 1079. He was, however, quickly forgiven, and passed two or three years in England and in Normandy until 1083, when he entered upon a second term of exile. When the Conqueror died in September 1087 Robert became duke of Normandy, but not king of England; although he received offers of help, he took no serious steps to displace his younger brother, King William II. In Normandy his rule was weak and irresolute. He lost the county of Maine, which for some years had been united with Normandy, and he was soon at variance with his brothers, the younger of whom, Henry, he seized and put into prison. In 1089 his duchy was invaded by William II., who soon made peace with Robert, the two agreeing to dispossess their brother Henry of his lands in Normandy. This peace lasted until 1094, when occasions of difference again arose and another struggle began, Robert being aided by King Philip I. of France.

This warfare ended in 1096, when Robert set out on the first crusade, having raised money for this purpose by pledging his duchy to William for 10,000 marks. With his followers he journeyed to Constantinople; then he took part in the siege of Nicaea, the battle of Dorylaeum, and the famous battle under the walls of Antioch in June 1098. He shared in the siege of Jerusalem and other exploits of the crusade, while one account says that he was offered and refused the crown of the new Latin kingdom. Having won a great reputation both for valour and for generosity, the duke left Palestine and arrived in Normandy in September 1100.

William Rufus died while Robert was on his homeward way, and in Italy the Norman duke was greeted as king of England; but when he reached Normandy he learned that the English throne was already in the possession of Henry I. In July 1102 he crosssed over to England, intending to contest his brother's title, but Henry met him near Alton, in Hampshire, and an amicable arrangement was made between them. Having received presents and the promise of a pension, Robert went quietly home. But the fraternal strife was not allayed. Henry had interests in Normandy in addition to the county of Evreux, which Robert ceded to him about 1102. Visits were exchanged, but no lasting peace was made, and in 1106 the English king crossed over to Norormandy, where Robert was in great extremities. At the battle of Tinchebrai, fought on the 28th of September 1106, Henry took his brother prisoner and carried him to England. For twenty-eight years the unfortunate duke was a captive, first in the Tower of London, and later in the castles of Devizes and Cardiff, but the evidence goes to show that he was not treated with cruelty. He died probably at Cardiff on the loth of February 1134. Robert had a son, William, called the Clito, and several natural children. He was called Curthose, and also Gambaron, his figure being short and stout. Although wanting in decision of character, he was a skilled and able warrior, and the chroniclers tell many stories, some of them obviously legendary, of his exploits in the Holy Land.

The chief sources for the life of Robert II. are Ordericus Vitalis, William of Malmesbury and other chroniclers of the time. See E. A. Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest (1870-76), and The Reign of Rufus (1882). -
Courtheuse, Robert II Duke of Normandy (I3621)
Duke of Normandy 1035-1087
King of England 1066-1087

Encyclopedia Britannica: Article "William I":

by name William The Conqueror, or The Bastard, or William Of Normandy,  French Guillaume Le Conquérant, or Le Bâtard, or Guillaume De Normandie  duke of Normandy (as William II) from 1035 and king of England from 1066, one of the greatest soldiers and rulers of the Middle Ages. He made himself the mightiest feudal lord in France and then changed the course of England's history by his conquest of that country.

Early years

William was the elder of two children of Robert I of Normandy and his concubine Herleva, or Arlette, the daughter of a burgher from the town of Falaise. In 1035 Robert died when returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and William, his only sonn, whom he had nominated as his heir before his departure, was accepted as duke by the Norman magnates and his feudal overlord, King Henry I of France. William and his friends had to overcome enormous obstacles. His illegitimacy (he was generally known as the Bastard) was a handicap, and he had to survive the collapse of law and order that accompanied his accession as a child.

Three of William's guardians died violent deaths before he grew up, and his tutor was murdered. His father's kin were of little help; most of them thought that they stood to gain by the boy's death. But his mother managed to protect William through the most dangerous period. These early difficulties probably contributed to his strength of purpose and his dislike of lawlessness and misrule.

Ruler of Normandy.

By 1042, when William reached his 15th year, was knighted, and began to play a personal part in the affairs of his duchy, the worst was over. But his attempts to recover rights lost during the anarchy and to bring disobedient vassals and servantants to heel inevitably led to trouble. From 1046 until 1055 he dealt with a series of baronial rebellions, mostly led by kinsmen. Occasionally he was in great danger and had to rely on Henry of France for help. In 1047 Henry and William defeated a coalition of Norman rebels at Val-ès-Dunes, southeast of Caen. It was in these years that William learned to fight and rule.

William soon learned to control his youthful recklessness. He was always ready to take calculated risks on campaign and, most important, to fight a battle. But he was not a chivalrous or flamboyant commander. His plans were simple, his methods direct, and he exploited ruthlessly any advantage gained. If he found himself at a disadvantage, he withdrew immediately. He showed the same qualities in his government. He never lost sight of his aim to recover lost ducal rights and revenues, annd, although he developed no theory of government or great interest in administrative techniques, he was always prepared to improvise and experiment. He seems to have lived a moral life by the standards of the time, and he acquired an interest iin the welfare of the Norman church. He made his half brother, Odo, bishop of Bayeux in 1049 at the age of about 16, and Odo managed to combine the roles of nobleman and prelate in a way that did not greatly shock contemporaries. But William also welcomed foreign monks and scholars to Normandy. Lanfranc of Pavia, a famous master of the liberal arts, who entered the monastery of Bec about 1042, was made abbot of Caen in 1063.

According to a brief description of William's person by an anonymous author, who borrowed extensively from Einhard's Life of Charlemagne, he was just above average height and had a robust, thick-set body. Though he was always sparing of food and drink, he became fat in later life. He had a rough bass voice and was a good and ready speaker. Writers of the next generation agree that he was exceptionally strong and vigorous. William was an out-of-doors man, a hunter and soldier, fierce and despotic, generally feared; uneducated, he had few graces but was intelligent and shrewd and soon obtained the respect of his rivals.

New alliances.

After 1047 William began to take part in events outside his duchy. In support of his lord, King Henry, and in pursuit of an ambition to strengthen his southern frontier and expand into Maine, he fought a series of campaigns against Geoffrey Martrtel, count of Anjou. But in 1052 Henry and Geoffrey made peace, there was a serious rebellion in eastern Normandy, and, until 1054 William was again in serious danger. During this period he conducted important negotiations with his cousin Edward the Confessor, king of England, and took a wife.

Norman interest in Anglo-Saxon England derived from an alliance made in 1002, when King Ethelred II of England married Emma, the sister of Count Richard II, William's grandfather. Two of her sons, William's cousins once removed, had reigned in turn in England, Hardecanute (1040–42) and Edward the Confessor (1042–66). William had met Edward during that prince's exile on the Continent and may well have given him some support when he returned to England in 1041. In that year Edward was about 36 and William 14. It is clear that William expected some sort of reward from Edward and, when Edward's marriage proved unfruitful, began to develop an ambition to become his kinsman's heir. Edward probably at times encouraged William's hopes. His childlessness was a diplomatic asset.

In 1049 William negotiated with Baldwin V of Flanders for the hand of his daughter, Matilda. Baldwin, an imperial vassal with a distinguished lineage, was in rebellion against the Western emperor, Henry III, and in desperate need of allies. ThThe proposed marriage was condemned as incestuous (William and Matilda were evidently related in some way) by the Emperor's friend, Pope Leo IX, at the Council of Reims in October 1049; but so anxious were the parties for the alliance that beforore the end of 1053, possibly in 1052, the wedding took place. In 1059 William was reconciled to the papacy, and as penance the disobedient pair built two monasteries at Caen. Four sons were born to William and Matilda: Robert (the future duke of Normandy), Richard (who died young), William Rufus (the Conqueror's successor in England), and Henry (Rufus' successor). Among the daughters was Adela, who was the mother of Stephen, king of England.

Edward the Confessor was supporting the Emperor, and it is possible that William used his new alliance with Flanders to put pressure on Edward and extort an acknowledgment that he was the English king's heir. At all events, Edward seems to have made some sort of promise to William in 1051, while Tostig, son of the greatest nobleman in England, Earl Godwine, married Baldwin's half sister. The immediate purpose of this tripartite alliance was to improve the security of each of the parties. If William secured a declaration that he was Edward's heir, he was also looking very far ahead.

Between 1054 and 1060 William held his own against an alliance between King Henry I and Geoffrey Martel of Anjou. Both men died in 1060 and were succeeded by weaker rulers. As a result, in 1063 William was able to conquer Maine. In 1064 or 1065 Edward sent his brother-in-law, Harold, earl of Wessex, Godwine's son and successor, on an embassy to Normandy. William took him on a campaign into Brittany, and in connection with this Harold swore an oath in which, according to Norman writers, he renewed Edward's bequest of the throne to William and promised to support it.

When Edward died childless on Jan. 5, 1066, Harold was accepted as king by the English magnates, and William decided on war. Others, however, moved more quickly. In May Tostig, Harold's exiled brother, raided England, and in September he joinened the invasion forces of Harald III Hardraade, king of Norway, off the Northumbrian coast. William assembled a fleet, recruited an army, and gathered his forces in August at the mouth of the Dives River. It is likely that he originally intended to sail due north and invade England by way of the Isle of Wight and Southampton Water. Such a plan would give him an offshore base and interior lines. But adverse winds detained his fleet in harbour for a month, and in September a westerly gale drove his ships up-Channel.

The Battle of Hastings.

William regrouped his forces at Saint-Valéry on the Somme. He had suffered a costly delay, some naval losses, and a drop in the morale of his troops. On September 27, after cold and rainy weather, the wind backed south. William embarked his army and set sail for the southeast coast of England. The following morning he landed, took the unresisting towns of Pevensey and Hastings, and began to organize a bridgehead with between 4,000 and 7,000 cavalry and infantry.

William's forces were in a narrow coastal strip, hemmed in by the great forest of Andred, and, although this corridor was easily defensible, it was not much of a base for the conquest of England. The campaigning season was almost past, and when William received news of his opponent it was not reassuring. On September 25 Harold had defeated and slain Tostig and Harald Hardraade at Stamford Bridge, near York, and was retracing his steps to meet the new invader. On October 13, when Haroold emerged from the forest, William was taken by surprise. But the hour was too late for Harold to push on to Hastings, and he took up a defensive position. Early the next day William went out to give battle. He attacked the English phalanx with archers and cavalry but saw his army almost driven from the field. He rallied the fugitives, however, and brought them back into the fight and in the end wore down his opponents. Harold's brothers were killed early in the battle. Toward nightfall the King himself fell and the English gave up. William's coolness and tenacity secured him victory in this fateful battle, and he then moved against possible centres of resistance so quickly that he prevented a new leader from emerging. On Christmas Day 1066 he was crowned king in Westminster Abbey. In a formal sense the Norman Conquest of England had taken place.

King of England

William was already an experienced ruler. In Normandy he had replaced disloyal nobles and ducal servants with his own friends, limited private warfare, and recovered usurped ducal rights, defining the feudal duties of his vassals. The Norman church flourished under his rule. He wanted a church free of corruption but subordinate to him. He would not tolerate opposition from bishops and abbots or interference from the papacy. He presided over church synods and reinforced ecclesiastical ddiscipline with his own. In supporting Lanfranc, prior of Bec, against Berengar of Tours in their dispute over the doctrine of the Eucharist, he found himself on the side of orthodoxy. He was never guilty of the selling of church office (simony). He disapproved of clerical marriage. At the same time he was a stern and sometimes rough master, swayed by political necessities, and he was not generous to the church with his own property. The reformer Lanfranc was one of his advisers; but perhaps even more to his taste were the worldly and soldierly bishops Odo of Bayeux and Geoffrey of Coutances.

William left England early in 1067 but had to return in December because of English unrest. The English rebellions that began in 1067 reached their peak in 1069 and were finally quelled in 1071. They completed the ruin of the highest English aristocracy and gave William a distaste for his newly conquered kingdom. Since his position on the Continent was deteriorating, he wanted to solve English problems as cheaply as possible. To secure England's frontiers, he invaded Scotland in 1072 and Wales in 1081 and created special defensive "marcher" counties along the Scottish and Welsh borders.

In the last 15 years of his life he was more often in Normandy than in England, and there were five years, possibly seven, in which he did not visit the kingdom at all. He retained most of the greatest Anglo-Norman barons with him in Normandy anand confided the government of England to bishops, trusting especially his old friend Lanfranc, whom he made archbishop of Canterbury. Much concerned that the natives should not be unnecessarily disturbed, he allowed them to retain their own laws and courts.

William returned to England only when it was absolutely necessary: in 1075 to deal with the aftermath of a rebellion by Roger, earl of Hereford, and Ralf, earl of Norfolk, which was made more dangerous by the intervention of a Danish fleet; and in 1082 to arrest and imprison his half brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux and earl of Kent, who was planning to take an army to Italy, perhaps to make himself pope. In the spring of 1082 William had his son Henry knighted, and in August at Salisbury he took oaths of fealty from all the important landowners in England, whosoever's vassals they might be. In 1085 he returned with a large army to meet the threat of an invasion by Canute IV (Canute the Holy) of Denmark. When this came to nothing owing to Canute's death in 1086, William ordered an economic and tenurial survey to be made of the kingdom, the results of which are summarized in the two volumes of Domesday Book.

William was preoccupied with the frontiers of Normandy. The danger spots were in Maine and the Vexin on the Seine, where Normandy bordered on the French royal demesne. After 1066 William's continental neighbours became more powerful and even more hostile. In 1068 Fulk the Surly succeeded to Anjou and in 1071 Robert the Frisian to Flanders. Philip I of France allied with Robert and Robert with the Danish king, Canute IV. There was also the problem of William's heir apparent, Robert Curtthose, who, given no appanage and seemingly kept short of money, left Normandy in 1077 and intrigued with his father's enemies. In 1081 William made a compromise with Fulk in the treaty of Blancheland: Robert Curthose was to be count of Maine bubut as a vassal of the count of Anjou. The eastern part of the Vexin, the county of Mantes, had fallen completely into King Philip's hands in 1077 when William had been busy with Maine. In 1087 William demanded from Philip the return of the townwns of Chaumont, Mantes, and Pontoise. In July he entered Mantes by surprise, but while the town burned he suffered some injury from which he never recovered. He was thwarted at the very moment when he seemed about to enforce his last outstanding territorial claim.


William was taken to a suburb of Rouen, where he lay dying for five weeks. He had the assistance of some of his bishops and doctors, and in attendance were his half brother Robert, count of Mortain, and his younger sons, William Rufus and Henry. Robert Curthose was with the King of France. It had probably been his intention that Robert, as was the custom, should succeed to the whole inheritance. In the circumstances he was tempted to make the loyal Rufus his sole heir. In the end he c compromised: Normandy and Maine went to Robert and England to Rufus. Henry was given great treasure with which he could purchase an appanage. William died at daybreak on September 9, in his 60th year, and was buried in rather unseemly fashion in St. Stephen's Church, which he had built at Caen.

Additional reading

David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (1964); and Frank Barlow, William I and the Norman Conquest (1965), are the definitive biographies. Earlier works still of value are E.A. Freeman, The History of the Norman Conquest of England, vol. 1–2–2, 2nd ed. (1870); 3–5, 1st ed. (1869–75); and F.M. Stenton, William the Conqueror and the Rule of the Normans (1908, revised 1967). Among the standard textbooks on William and the Norman Conquest of England are F.M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1943); and Frank Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042–1216 (1955). There is a vast literature on the Conquest. A useful introduction is provided by Dorothy Whitelock et al., The Norman Conquest: Its Setting and Impact (1966); and C. Warren Hollister (ed.), The Impact of the Norman Conquest (1969).

"William I" Encyclopædia Britannica  from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

[Accessed September 11, 2004].

See also
William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, King of England (I2875)
Duke of Normandy 1106-1135
King of England 1100-1135

Henry I belonged to the Norman Dynasty. Born in 1068, he ascended to the throne in 1100 and died in 1135. He was preceded as monarch by William II and was succeeded by Stephen.

The younger son of William the Conquerer and Matilda, he was born at Selby in Yorkshire. He succeeded his brotherWilliam II and strengthened his position by marrying Eadgyth (known as Matilda), daughter of Malcolm, king of Scotland, and of Margaret, granddaughter of Edmund Ironside.

Henry's elder brother Robert was persuaded to assert his claims to the throne. Overwhelmingly defeated at Tinchebrai in 1106, Robert was imprisoned in Cardiff Castle, and Normandy was united to England. Henry married his daughter Matilda to Emperor Henry V, gained over the Count of Anjou, and defeated the French king at Bremule in 1119.

Henry's only son, William, was drowned in 1120 in the White Ship.. Henry died suddenly at Angers in Normandy and was buried at Reading.

Henry I (1100–35)

A good politician and administrator, Henry I was the ablest of the Conqueror's sons. At his coronation on Aug. 5, 1100, he issued a charter intended to win the support of the nation. This propaganda document, in which Henry promised to give up many practices of the past, demonstrates how oppressive Norman government had become. Henry promised not to exploit church vacancies, as his brother had done, and guaranteed that reliefs, sums paid by feudal vassals when they took over their fathers' estates, would be “just and legitimate.” He also promised to return to the laws of Edward the Confessor, though this cannot have been intended literally.

Following the suppression of rebellion in England, the conquest of Normandy was an important priority for Henry. By 1105 he took the offensive, and in September 1106 he won a decisive battle at Tinchebray that gave him control of the whole of Noormandy. Robert was captured and was to spend the rest of his 80 years in castle dungeons. His son, William Clito, escaped and remained until his death in 1128 a thorn in Henry's flesh. Success in Normandy was followed by wars against Louis VI o of France, but by 1120 Henry was everywhere successful in both diplomacy and war. He had arranged a marriage for his only legitimate son, William, to Matilda, daughter of Fulk of Anjou, and had received Fulk's homage for Maine. Pope Calixtus II, his cousin, gave him full support for his control of Normandy on condition that his son William should do homage to the French king.

Relations with the church had not always been easy. Henry had inherited from William II a quarrel with the church that became part of the Europe-wide Investiture Controversy. After Lanfranc's death William had delayed appointing a successor, presumably for the privilege of exploiting the resources of the archbishopric. After four years, during a bout of illness, he appointed Anselm of Bec, one of the great scholars of his time (1093). Anselm did homage for his temporalities, but whetheer or not he was ever invested with the symbols of spiritual office by the king is not clear. Papal confirmation was complicated by the fact that there were two claimants to the papal throne. Anselm refused to accept a decision made by the king's supporters and insisted on receiving his pallium from Urban II, a reform pope in the tradition of Gregory VII, rather than from the imperial nominee, Clement III. Conflict between king and archbishop flared up again in 1097 over what William considered to be an inadequate Canterbury contingent for his Welsh war. The upshot was that Anselm went into exile until William's death. At Rome he heard new papal decrees against lay investiture.

Anselm supported Henry's bid for the throne and returned from exile in 1100. Almost immediately he quarreled with Henry when the king asked him to do homage and to receive his archbishopric from his hands. After various ineffective appeals to Rome, Anselm again went into exile. A compromise was finally arranged in 1107, when it was agreed that the king would surrender investiture with the symbols of spiritual office in return for an agreement that he should supervise the election of the archbishop and take homage for the temporalities before investiture with the spiritual symbols took place. It was said that the concession cost the king “a little, perhaps, of his royal dignity, but nothing of his power to enthrone anyone he pleased.”

Henry continued and extended the administrative work of his father. His frequent absences from England prompted the development of a system that could operate effectively in his absence, under the guidance of such men as Roger, bishop of Salisbury. The exchequer was developed as a department of government dealing with royal revenues, and the first record of the sheriffs' regular accounting at the exchequer, or Pipe Roll, to survive is that of 1129–30. Justices with wide-ranging commissions were sent out into the shires to reinforce local administration and to inquire into crown pleas, royal revenues, and other matters of interest and profit for the king. Henry's government was highly efficient, but it was also harsh and demanding.

During the last 15 years of his reign the succession was a major issue. William, Henry's only legitimate son, was drowned in 1120, leaving Henry's daughter Matilda, wife of the German emperor Henry V, as heir. When Henry V died in 1125, Matildlda returned to England. Henry I persuaded his barons to swear an oath in her support but did not consult them over her second marriage to Geoffrey of Anjou, who at 14 was 11 years her junior. Within a year Geoffrey repudiated Matilda, but during a temporary reconciliation, Matilda and Geoffrey had three children.

Henry was a skilled politician, adept at using the levers of patronage. Men such as Geoffrey de Clinton, the royal chamberlain, owed much to the favours they received from the king, and they served him well in return. There was tension between the established nobility and the “new men” raised to high office by the king, but Henry maintained control with great effect and distributed favours evenhandedly. In England his rule, particularly when seen in retrospect, was characterized by peace, order, and justice. He died, probably of a heart attack, on Dec. 1, 1135.

- United Kingdom. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
Henry I King of England, Duke of Normandy (I3620)
Edgar, king in Mercia and the Danelaw from 957, succeeded his brother as king of the English on Edwy's death in 959 - a death which probably prevented civil war breaking out between the two brothers. Edgar was a firm and capable ruler whose power was acknowledged by other rulers in Britain, as well as by Welsh and Scottish kings. Edgar's late coronation in 973 at Bath was the first to be recorded in some detail; his queen Aelfthryth was the first consort to be crowned queen of England.
Edgar was the patron of a great monastic revival which owed much to his association with Archbishop Dunstan. New bishoprics were created, Benedictine monasteries were reformed and old monastic sites were re-endowed with royal grants, some of which were of land recovered from the Vikings.

In the 970s and in the absence of Viking attacks, Edgar - a stern judge - issued laws which for the first time dealt with Northumbria (parts of which were in the Danelaw) as well as Wessex and Mercia. Edgar's coinage was uniform throughout the kingdom. A more united kingdom based on royal justice and order was emerging; the Monastic Agreement (c.970) praised Edgar as 'the glorious, by the grace of Christ illustrious king of the English and of the other peoples dwelling within the bounds of the island of Britain'. After his death on 8 July 975, Edgar was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset.
Edgar the Peaceable King of England 959-975 (I2706)
Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. Edward surrounded himself with favourites (the best known being a Gascon, Piers Gaveston), and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign, different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King.

The nobles' ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were counteracted by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce in 1314 made Edward more unpopular.

Edward's victory in a civil war (1321-2) and such measures as the 1326 ordinance (a protectionist measure which set up compulsory markets or staples in 14 English, Welsh and Irish towns for the wool trade) did not lead to any compromise between the King and the nobles.

Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, led an invasion against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward (the first time that an anointed king of England had been dethroned since Ethelred in 1013). Edward II was later murdered at Berkeley Castle.
Edward II King of England 1307-1327 (I2686)
Edward III was 14 when he was crowned King and assumed government in his own right in 1330. In 1337, Edward created the Duchy of Cornwall to provide the heir to the throne with an income independent of the sovereign or the state. An able soldier, and an inspiring leader, Edward founded the Order of the Garter in 1348.

At the beginning of the Hundred Years War in 1337, actual campaigning started when the King invaded France in 1339 and laid claim to the throne of France. Following a sea victory at Sluys in 1340, Edward overran Brittany in 1342 and in 1346 he landed in Normandy, defeating the French King, Philip IV, at the Battle of Crécy and his son Edward (the Black Prince) repeated his success at Poitiers (1356). By 1360 Edward controlled over a quarter of France. His successes consolidated the support of the nobles, lessened criticism of the taxes, and improved relations with Parliament. However, under the 1375 Treaty of Bruges the French King, Charles V, reversed most of the English conquests; Calais and a coastal strip near Bordeaux were Edward's only lasting gain.

Failure abroad provoked criticism at home. The Black Death plague outbreaks of 1348-9, 1361-2 and 1369 inflicted severe social dislocation (the King lost a daughter to the plague) and caused deflation; severe laws were introduced to attempt to ffix wages and prices. In 1376, the 'Good Parliament' (which saw the election of the first Speaker to represent the Commons) attacked the high taxes and criticised the King's advisers. The ageing King withdrew to Windsor for the rest of his reign, eventually dying at Sheen Palace, Surrey.
Edward III King of England 1327-1377 (I2684)
Edward III's son, the Black Prince, died in 1376. The king's grandson, Richard II, succeeded to the throne aged 10, on Edward's death.

In 1381 the Peasants' Revolt broke out and Richard, aged 14, bravely rode out to meet the rebels at Smithfield, London. Wat Tyler, the principal leader of the peasants, was killed and the uprisings in the rest of the country were crushed over the next few weeks (Richard was later forced by his Council's advice to rescind the pardons he had given).

Highly cultured, Richard was one of the greatest royal patrons of the arts; patron of Chaucer, it was Richard who ordered the technically innovative transformation of the Norman Westminster Hall to what it is today. (Built between 1097 and 1099 by William II, the Hall was the ceremonial and administrative centre of the kingdom; it also housed the Courts of Justice until 1882.)

Richard's authoritarian approach upset vested interests, and his increasing dependence on favourites provoked resentment. In 1388 the 'Merciless Parliament', led by a group of lords hostile to Richard (headed by the King's uncle, Gloucester), sentenced many of the king's favourites to death and forced Richard to renew his coronation oath. The death of his first queen, Anne of Bohemia, in 1394 further isolated Richard, and his subsequent arbitrary behaviour alienated people further.

Richard took his revenge in 1397, arresting or banishing many of his opponents; his cousin, Henry of Bolingbroke, was also subsequently banished. On the death of Henry's father, John of Gaunt (a younger son of Edward III), Richard confiscated the vast properties of his Duchy of Lancaster (which amounted to a state within a state) and divided them among his supporters.

Richard pursued policies of peace with France (his second wife was Isabella of Valois); Richard still called himself king of France and refused to give up Calais, but his reign was concurrent with a 28 year truce in the Hundred Years War. His expeditions to Ireland failed to reconcile the Anglo-Irish lords with the Gaels.

In 1399, whilst Richard was in Ireland, Henry of Bolingbroke returned to claim his father's inheritance. Supported by some of the leading baronial families (including Richard's former Archbishop of Canterbury), Henry captured and deposed Richard. Bolingbroke was crowned King as Henry IV.

Risings in support of Richard led to his murder in Pontefract Castle; Henry V subsequently had his body buried in Westminster Abbey. ...

Richard II (AD 1377-1399)
Born: 6 January 1367 at Bordeaux, Gascony
Murdered: 14 February 1400 at Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire
Buried: Westminster Abbey, Middlesex
Parents: Edward, Prince of Wales - "the Black Prince" - and Joan, the "Fair Maid of Kent"
Siblings: Edward of Angouleme
Crowned: 16 July 1377 at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex
Abdicated: 29 September 1399
Married: (1st) 14 January 1382 at St. Stephen's Chapel in the Palace of Westminster, Middlesex; (2nd) 4th November 1396 at Calais
Spouse: (1st) Anne daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor & King of Bohemia; (2nd) Isabella daughter of Charles VI, King of France
Offspring: None
Named Heir: His cousin, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March
Contemporaries: Wat Tyler; Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford; Michael de la Pole; Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel; Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick; John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester; Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), Earl of Derby; Geoffrey Chaucer

Richard II, born in 1367, was the son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent. Richard was but ten years old when he succeeded his grandfather, Edward III; England was ruled by a council under the leadership of John of Gaunt, and Richard was tutored by Sir Simon Burley. He married the much-beloved Anne of Bohemia in 1382, who died childless in 1394. Edward remarried in 1396, wedding the seven year old Isabella of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France, to end a further struggle with France.

Richard asserted royal authority during an era of royal restrictions. Economic hardship followed the Black Death, as wages and prices rapidly increased. Parliament exacerbated the problem by passing legislation limiting wages but failing to also regulate prices. In 1381, Wat Tyler led the Peasants' Revolt against the oppressive government policies of John of Gaunt. Richard's unwise generosity to his favorites - Michael de la Pole, Robert de Vere and others - led Thomas, Duke of Gloucester and four other magnates to form the Lords Appellant. The five Lords Appellant tried and convicted five of Richard's closest advisors for treason. In 1397, Richard arrested three of the five Lords, coerced Parliament to sentence them to death and banished the other two. One of the exiles was Henry Bolingbroke, the future Henry IV. Richard travelled to Ireland in 1399 to quell warring chieftains, allowing Bolingboke to return to England and be elected king by Parliament. Richard lacked support and was quickly captured by Henry IV.

Deposed in 1399, Richard was murdered while in prison, the first casualty of the Wars of the Roses between the Houses of Lancaster and York.
Richard II King of England 1377-1399 (I519)
170 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I703)
Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most powerful and fascinating personalities of feudal Europe. At age 15 she married Louis VII, King of France, bringing into the union her vast possessions from the River Loire to the Pyrenees. Only a few years later, at age 19, she knelt in the cathedral of Vézelay before the celebrated Abbé Bernard of Clairvaux offering him thousands of her vassals for the Second Crusade. It was said that Queen Eleanor appeared at Vézelay dressed like an Amazon galloping through the crowds on a white horse, urging them to join the crusades.

While the church may have been pleased to receive her thousand fighting vassals, they were less happy when they learned that Eleanor, attended by 300 of her ladies, also planned to go to help "tend the wounded."

The presence of Eleanor, her ladies and wagons of female servants, was criticized by commentators throughout her adventure. Dressed in armor and carrying lances, the women never fought. And when they reached the city of Antioch, Eleanor found herself deep in a renewed friendship with Raymond, her uncle, who had been appointed prince of the city. Raymond, only a few years older than Eleanor, was far more interesting and handsome than Eleanor's husband, Louis. When Raymond decided that the best strategic objective of the Crusade would be to recapture Edessa, thus protecting the Western presence in the Holy Land, Eleanor sided with his view. Louis, however, was fixated on reaching Jerusalem, a less sound goal. Louis demanded that Eleanor follow him to Jerusalem. Eleanor, furious, announced to one and all that their marriage was not valid in the eyes of God, for they were related through some family connections to an extent prohibited by the Church. Wounded by her claim, Louis nonetheless forced Eleanor to honor her marriage vows and ride with him. The expedition did fail, and a defeated Eleanor and Louis returned to France in separate ships.

On her way home, while resting in Sicily, Eleanor was brought the news that her fair haired uncle had been killed in battle, and his head delivered to the Caliph of Baghdad. Although her marriage to Louis continued for a time, and she bore him two daughters, the relationship was over. In 1152 the marriage was annulled and her vast estates reverted to Eleanor's control. Within a year, at age thirty, she married twenty year old Henry who two years later became king of England.

In the papal bull for the next Crusade, it expressly forbade women of all sorts to join the expedition. All the Christian monarchs, including King Louis, agreed to this. But by this time Eleanor had problems of her own in her marriage to King Henry II of England.

See also
d' Aquitaine, Eleanor (I2695)
172 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I572)
First King of Norway

born c. 860 died c. 940 byname Harald Fairhair, or Finehair, Norwegian Harald Hårfager, Old Norse Harald Hárfagri the first king to claim sovereignty over all Norway. One of the greatest of the 9th-century Scandinavian warrior chiefs, he gained effective control of Norway's western coastal districts but probably had only nominal authority in the other parts of Norway.
The son of Halvdan the Black, ruler of part of southeastern Norway and a scion of the Yngling dynasty, the ancient royal house of Sweden, Harald succeeded his father at the age of 10. His first conquest came with the suppression of a revolt in the Uplands region. A pact with Haakon, earl of Lade, enabled him to pursue conquest of the western districts, culminating in the battle of Hafrsfjord, dated 872 by medieval historians but placed 10 to 20 years later by modern historians.
Harald's conquests and taxation system led many chiefs and their followers to emigrate to the British Isles, adjacent lands, and perhaps to Iceland, which first became known to Scandinavians during the era of Harald's rule. He acquired wealth through his control of coastal trade but ruled indirectly through lesser chieftains in areas other than his own tightly controlled home district, in the southwest. His major governmental contribution lay in the development of provincial administrations (lagtings).
The most reliable information on Harald's life is contained in contemporary poems written down in Iceland in the 13th century. His career is also described in 12th- and 13th-century Icelandic and Norwegian historical works of questionable reliability, the fullest account being written by the Icelander Snorri Sturluson (d. 1241) in the Heimskringla.
--"Harald I." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service
28 Apr. 2005 .
Halfdansson, Harald I King of Norway (I3633)
First Monarch of all England
Edward's heir Athelstan (reigned 925-39) was also a distinguished and audacious soldier who pushed the boundaries of the kingdom to their furthest extent yet. In 927-8, Athelstan took York from the Danes; he forced the submission of king Constantine of Scotland and of the northern kings; all five Welsh kings agreed to pay a huge annual tribute (reportedly including 25,000 oxen), and Athelstan eliminated opposition in Cornwall.
The battle of Brunanburh in 937, in which Athelstan led a force drawn from Britain and defeated an invasion by the king of Scotland in alliance with the Welsh and Danes from Dublin, earned him recognition by lesser kings in Britain.
Athelstan's law codes strengthened royal control over his large kingdom; currency was regulated to control silver's weight and to penalise fraudsters. Buying and selling was mostly confined to the burhs, encouraging town life; areas of settlement in the midlands and Danish towns were consolidated into shires. Overseas, Athelstan built alliances by marrying four of his half-sisters to various rulers in western Europe.
He also had extensive cultural and religious contacts; as an enthusiastic and discriminating collector of works of art and religious relics, he gave away much of his collection to his followers and to churches and bishops in order to retain their support.
Athelstan died at the height of his power and was buried at Malmesbury; a church charter of 934 described him as 'King of the English, elevated by the right hand of the Almighty ... to the Throne of the whole Kingdom of Britain'. Athelstan died childless.
Athelstan King of England 924-939 (I2719)
Footnote from Planche Page 42
The Ruellinus de Abrincis named in this document* has never appeared in any pedigree of the family of D'Avranches. From the other interesting record to which we have just alluded, we infer that he was the brother of Simon d'Avranche, plaintiff or appellant, in a trial by wager of battle with Baldwin, Comte de Guisnes, 10th February, 1201, respecting the right to some lands in Newington; for there can be no doubt that the hiatus in the MS. should be filled up thus:-" Inter Simonem de AvAvranches petentem per Roelland. fratrem suum."(Archaeol. Cant. . vol. ii. p. 265.) This name, which was that of his grandfather, who married Maud de Muneville, heiress of Folkestone, being most capriciously spelt, not only Roellandus, Ruellinus, Roelent, Rualo, and Ruallon, but also Graalandus and Graelent, as it will be found in the families of Tany, Valoigne's , St. Ledger, and others, beside that of D'Avranches. In a document of the date 1127, printed by Mr. Boys in his 11 Collections for the History of Sandwich," pp. 551-3, the name of the grandfather is corrupted into Ruerent de Aurences, and in the " Rot. Curiae Regis," 9th & 10th of Richard I., that of the grandson is indifferently given as Grelent, Rohelandus, and Rolandus. It has subsided into the more familiar form of Roland.

*A legal document called the final concorde of the eigth year of the reign of Richard 1 AD 1197 between Elias de Beauchamp and Constance de Bolbec, his wife, plaintiffs, on one part and Ruellinus de Abrincis (Avranches) tenant, on the other...
d' Avranches, Rualo (I2991)
From Jamaica Family Search - various lists. Continuity between dates likely but not proven. Many of these appointments show Charles Royes and Charles Clement Bravo in similar appointments:
St Ann's Bank - treasurer 1851 - 1857 - not 1865
St Ann's Eastern Militia (Lieutenant) 1851 - 1857 - 1861 - 1865
St Ann Magistrate 1851 - 1857 - 1865 ("residing out of parish" which is a different classification from "off the island")
Roads and Bridges - St Ann "Householder" Seville District 1857 (appears to be an appointment)

Gleaner (Jamaica) 1 Jun 1881: We regret to record the death of Mr. Joseph Bravo, once a merchant in this island, and long resident in London, where he continued to engage in West Indian business and served as a director of the Colonial Bank.

Bravo Bros in St Ann's Bay were general merchants, agents for the Colonial Bank.
Gleaner (Jamaica) 3 Apr 1882 reports: We regret to learn that the country is likely to lose the valuable services of the Hon. Michael Solomon, Custos of St. Ann, M L. C. We understand that the hon. gentleman will leave this Island for England, via New York, by the steamer of the 12th instant, and that he will be absent about six months. During that time Mr. E. G. Barrett will probably act as Custos of St. Ann and Chairman of the Parochial Boards. It is quite possible that Mr. Solomon will not return to be a permanent resident in the Island, but will take in England the position held in the firm of which he is a member, by the late Mr. Bravo. Mr. Solomon’s absence from the Legislative Council will be regretted throughout the Island, and in his own Parish, where he is the most popular of Custodes, his place will not be easily filled.

Liverpool Mercury, Friday 12 August 1881:
The will (dated August 28 1880) of Mr Joseph Bravo on No 2 Palace-green, Kensington, who died on 28 May last, was proved on 29th ult. By Michael Solomon, his sole executor, the personal estate exceeding in value £19,000; but this sum, does not of course, include his property in Jamaica. The testator bequeaths £40,000 and his furniture, plate, pictures, household effects, horses and carriages to his stepdaughters, Alice and Ellen Turner; and legacies to his own and his late wife’s relatatives, servants and others. His residuary estate is to be held upon trust for the said Michael Solomon and his wife Adelaide, for their lives, and on the death of the survivor is to be equally divided between the British Home for Incurables, the Deaf and Dumb Institution, Old Kent Road, University Hospital; the convent School, Hendon, Middlesex, and the Convent School, St Leonard’s on Sea.

See also Thorney-Bravo-Foreman-Nielson-Morgan family tree on
Bravo, Joseph (I1733)
Geoffrey V (1113 - 1151), Count of Anjou and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy, called "Geoffrey the Fair" or "Geoffrey Plantagent", was the son of Fulk V, Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem. Geoffrey's mother was Eremburg of La Flèche, heiress of Maine. Geoffrey himself became the father of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings.

Nicknamed for the sprig of broom (= genêt plant, in French) he wore in his hat as a badge, at the age of 15 he married Matilda, the daughter of Henry I of England and widow of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage in 1128 was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, and their marriage was a stormy one, but she survived him. Their eldest son became Henry II of England.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king), leaving Geoffrey behind as count as Anjou.

When king Henry died in 1135, Maud's cousin Stephen seized the throne. While Maud turned her attentions to England, Geoffrey focused on the conquest of Normandy. This was to take a decade of steady seigework and alliance-building, a process Geoffrey would not abandon even when his wife pleaded for help in England. The merits of this strategy are sometimes debated. While Angevin forces might have been decisive if brought over to England, it also seems that the possession of Normandy played a role, possibly even a decisive one, in the eventual success of their son Henry in taking the English crown.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England.

In the remaining years of his life, Geoffrey consolidated his hold on Normandy, reforming the administration of the duchy, and, in 1150, introduced Henry into its rule.

He died on September 7, 1151, still a young man, and is buried in Le Mans Cathedral in France.

• Jim Bradbury, "Geoffrey V of Anjou, Count and Knight", in The Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood III
• Charles H. Haskins, "Normandy Under Geoffrey Plantagenet", The English Historical Review, volume 27 (July 1912), pp. 417-444

GEOFFREY V "le Bel" (Plantagenet), Comte d'Anjou & Maine, Duke of Normandy (1144-1150), b 1113, d 1151, m in 1128 as 2nd husband of 25 yrs old MATILDA (Maud) "the Empress", only surviving legitimate child and heiress of King HENRY I (see under England Kings for ancestors), d 1169. Her 1st husband was the Holy Roman (German) Emperor Heinrich V. Prior to marriage with GEOFFREY she'd been in love with STEPHEN de Blois.
King HENRY II, b 1133 (see under England, Kings, for descendants)
Geoffrey, d 1158, Comte de Nantes
Guillaume, d 1164, Comte de Poitou

GEOFFREY V's illegitimate dau EMMA, m 1st GUY V, Seigneur du LAVAL , and m 2nd Dafydd I, Prince of Gwynedd

GEOFFREY V's illegitimate son HAMELINE PLANTAGENET, m in 1163 as 2nd husband of Countess ISABEL de WARRENNE (see under Warrenne for descendants).

GEOFFREY V's illegitimate dau "Marie of France" wrote lais and became Abbess of Shaftesbury
Plantagenet, Geoffrey Count of Anjou and Maine, Duke of Normandy (I2698)
Harthacnut was the son of Canute and his second wife, Emma, the widow of Ethelred II. His father intended Hardicanute to become king of the English in preference to his elder brother Harold Harefoot, but he nearly lost his chance of this when he became preoccupied with affairs in Denmark, of which he was also king. Instead, Canute's eldest son, Harold Harefoot, became king of England as a whole.  In 1039 Hardicanute eventually set sail for England, arriving to find his brother dead and himself king.
Hardicanute, the son of Canute and Emma of Normandy, was born in 1018. He inherited Denmark on his father's death in 1035, but was unable to come to England immediately to claim the throne. The Witan elected his half-brother, Harold Knutsson, as king instead.
Hardicanute organised an invasion of England but before he arrived, Harold died. He imposed a savage fleet-tax and this made him extremely unpopular with the English people. Hardicanute died in June 1042 after a drinking party.
Hardicanute King of England 1035-1042 (I3626)
He is recorded in the Knights Visitation of Kent 1619 as son of William Hougham (Note "de" dropped) and as father of Stephen.
He is pictured in stained glass in St Nicholas Church, Ash, but it is not the original. A drawing of the original is in the British Museum as additional MSS no 5479. It should be noted that on his tabard are the arms newly acquired for quartering with the original coat of Hougham, and that he is depicted with spurs signifying that he had received Knighthood. It was so customary for the Knights to qualify for Knighthood that special use of title was seldom used in documents.
His will is in the Archdeaconry Register of Canterbury Vol 13 folio 172. It was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in 1518. He describes himself in it as Solomon Hougham of Preston (near Ash). He asks to be buried in Preston Church. He leaves stock to the church of Ash to keep an obit once a year on 5 Aug. The will records that he owns the Manor of Weddington in Ash, estates at Ware estates in Nell parish. He names his children as Stephen, Thomas, William, Solomon, Joan.

KGR and Greta Gordon have wife as Agnes but I cannot find any other support for this. RY has wife unknown. RY has another Solomon who died same year as this one, son of another Solomon, son of John (and Joan Blameter)
Hougham, Solomon (I1516)
He is recorded on Derring Role of Arms as son of Robert de Hougham 1
He is recorded in an assessment of holders of Knights fees at the knighting of the king's son anno 38 Henry 3 (1253/4)
He is recorded as holding in the Hendredum of Beasburgh the following- The manor of Hougham near Dover, entry 85, The Manor of Hawkinge near Folkestone, entry 166, the Manor of Boughton Monchenesy, entry 146
He is recorded on an inquisition dated July 1258 as holding at time of his death the manor of Wavering by the same Knights service as given for his father
He is recorded on another inquisition at his death. It is headed thus "A writ to inquire how much land Robert de Hougham held of the Knights capite. Tested at Westminster 26 July King Henry 6" (1257/8). In it it is recorded that He owned the manor of Boxley [Didn't Rober t 1 give this away?- RY]. He owned a mill and land at Farlech county Kent. He owned the estate of Hope House near Folkestone. He owned lands in Maidstone and other lands and a weir at and near Maidstone. The writ endnds "and Robert de Hougham his son is the next heir and is 8 yea rs old". This gives the date of his death as just prior to 26 July 1258 and his son as born 1250. It does not give all his lands as other lands in other Hundredums of the county had their inquisitions, also other lands held of the King by Knights service are stated.
He is recorded on a livery of his sons fiefe- lands (see next Robert) which states that he owned the manor of Hougham, the manor of Borton Monchenessy, the manor of Wavering, the manor of Dolleham, Sussex where Beatrice died 24 June 1274
Derring Role of Arms, 1253-4 assessment Knights fee entry 85, 166, 146.
Inquisition on death 1258
Livery of Fiefs lands 1274

Died in the 41st of Henry III [1257]. "He was of Manor of Waveringe, Constable of Rochester Castle, Lord of [Hougham-Hurley Genealogical Record]
de Hougham, Robert II (I2101)
He is recorded on Derring role of Arms as the son of the above Robert de Hougham
He is recorded as son and next of kin of his father Robert de Hougham and as 8 years old 26 July 1258 on inquisition of fathers fiefes
He is recorded in a livery of his fiefe land 24 June 1274 when he made proof of his age 24 years to obtain his inheritance as son and heir of Robert de Hougham deceased who held the Manor of Hougham,The Manor of Bockton Monchenessy, the manor of Wavering, Dolleham, Sussex.
He is recorded on Rotary Eschest Roll at the time of his death 2nd King Edward 1 (1274) as holding the manor of Wavering by the same Knights service defined for the first Robert.
He was siesed of Hope House an estate in the northern parish of Folkestone on his death ("siesed" and "fiefed" are the same word meaning possessed of the fiefe of; owned by Knights service).
He died Constable of Rochester Castle in the second year of King Edward 1 (1273/74) See
Derring role of Arms
Inquisition 1258
Livery of Fiefe lands 1274
1274 Rotary Esc. Role no 14
Inquisition 1274
Records of Rochester Castle

Family Search records one Robert who similarly died 1274 but was born 1212
and a Robert who was almost-similarly born 1251 and who died before 18 Jul 1316 and was married to Beatrice. He also had a sister Beatrice born 1259.
Note that Robert II (1175-1258) was married to a Beatrice. When there are five Robert's in a sequence, it gets confusing! However, the evidence that this Robert was 8 years old when his father died means I have stayed with Robin Young's info and added the Beatrice's to both Robert II and Robert III., ,

See also
de Hougham, Robert III (I1758)
He is recorded on the Derring Role of Arms as son of the above Robert de Hougham and as father of the 5th Robert de Hougham.
He had a suite with a relative John de Hougham regarding lands at Hougham 30 Dec 1286
He is recorded as one of the Jurats of Ash next Sandwich in the Placita de Quo Warrento in 1293 at which time he owned the manor of Weddington in Ash
He obtained licence for him to alienate to Saint Radigwids Abbey by Dover, 63 acres of pasture at Hawkinge Kent 15 June 1293

He was fined 20 m (?) for "forest trespass in Ess" ie hunting the Royal Deer in the forest of Ash which adjoined his manor of Weddington in 1295 He obtained quittance of the fine in consideration of a horse lost at Dover fighting against the French Grant of Quittance of fine made in close role dated 25 Aug 1295. (Dover was burned by the French in 1295 and so much damaged that for many years it did not recover)
He fought throughout the battle of Dover against the French under their Admiral Matthew of Montmorenci according to the close roles dated 25 Aug 1295. In this and all subsequent documents he is referred to as Sir Robert de Hougham
He was Summoned to serve in Flanders 24 Nov 1297
He was summoned with the recurrence of fighting to serve in Flanders again in 1298
He was summoned to serve against the Scots in a parliamentary writ dated 8 Jan 1298
He is recorded in an inquisituion of his fiefe land held of the King The inquisition is date d 18 April 29 Edward 1 (1301) It is Rotary Escheat Role no 48
He had recently died, as inquisition is on lands on death.It records that he owned the Manor of Hougham, the Manor of Waveri ng, the Manor of Boughton Monchenessy. He owned lands at Caldecote at Chiltone lands at Hope near Folkestone, land in Dover akk in Kent. and all by Knights service which perforce passed to his eldest son for similar service. This document ends thus and his son and heir Robert is 8 to 10 years old.
His manor of Weddington and his lands in Ash passed to his younger son Richard de Hougham of Ash who is recorded so in the college of arms MS27. This and all wills to time of Charles 1st (Given later ) show Weddington continuing with descendants of Richard. Alex de Baliol was made Custodian of Hougham Manor in the minority of the Heir 28 April 1302 and Guardian of the Heir.

Derring Role of Arms
Fine Roles 1286,
The Placita de Quo Warrento 1293,
Patent Roles 1293,
Close Roles 1295
1297,8 Parliamentary Writs
Inquisition on Death 1301,
College of Arms MS27
Fine Roles 1302

The Manors of Kent. (From Sarah Lonsdale's article in Telegraph Property)
The manors are in and around the village of Ash near Canterbury. The remaining 6 houses of the original group of 16 are all now listed and although they have all been chopped about, added to and altered it is possible to see their original hall house construction in hidden roof beams, surviving fireplaces and the occasional exposed lathe and plaster walls.
The manor houses of Ash were unusual at the time of their construction during the late 14 and early 15 century in that although they were grand houses they were fairly close together and all in the same parish, in fact at the time the houses went up the presence of about 16 manor houses inhabited by knights, wealthty merchants and the odd inter married euro trash endowed the parish of Ash a grandeur it has not known since.
"Ash probably reached its social peak around then and has been going downhill ever since" says local historian David Downes, author of Ash an East Kent Village. The houses' unique nature, says Mr Downes, is due to both their proximity to Sandwich, and the way the land, originally owned by the church, was divided into little sub-manors. "At that time, Sandwich was the premier port of England, through which virtually the country's entire wool exports were shipped and, likewise, continental goods were imported.
"But the port of Sandwich itself was dirty, crowded and disease ridden so the wealthy merchants and knightly families who grew rich from Sandwich's trade set up home in the fresh healthy air of Ash"
All the land around Ash was originally part of the huge Manor of Wingham owned by the archbishops of Canterbury since before the Battle of Hastings. At their discretion, subsequent archbishops gave smaller sub-manors to family and well connected friends in exchange for various establishment duties, including keeping a watch out for possible French invasions along the Sandwich coast.
There were 12 of these sub manors in and around Ash, most with just one manor house, some with two, on their land. They still survive in the names of roads and farms as well as the remaining houses: Weddington, Molland, Chequer, Wingham Barton, Goshall, Fleet, Hills Court, Twitham Hills, Levericks, Overland, Chilton, Uphousden, Knell, Hoaden, Paramour and Goldstone.
Historian Edward Hasted in his "The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent" , published in 1778 writes of the Ash manor houses "which being inhabited by families of reputation and good rank in life made this parish of much greater account than it has been for many years past"
de Hougham, Robert IV (I1504)
Henry I's daughter Matilda invaded England in 1139 to claim the throne, and the country was plunged into civil war. Although anarchy never spread over the whole country, local feuds were pursued under the cover of the civil war; the bond between the King (Stephen) and the nobles broke down, and senior figures (including Stephen's brother Henry) freely changed allegiances as it suited them.

Date of marriage or birth probably not correct

m Geoffrey in 1128 as 2nd husband when 25 yrs old. MATILDA (Maud) "the Empress", only surviving legitimate child and heiress of King HENRY I , d 1169. Her 1st husband was the Holy Roman (German) Emperor Heinrich V. Prior to marriage with GEOFFREY she'd been in love with STEPHEN de Blois.

King HENRY II, b 1133 (see under England, Kings, for descendants)
Geoffrey, d 1158, Comte de Nantes
Guillaume, d 1164, Comte de Poitou
- [under "Geoffrey V")
Matilda or Maud (I2696)
Henry III, King John's son, was only nine when he became king. By 1227, when he assumed power from his regent, order had been restored, based on his acceptance of Magna Carta. However, the king's failed campaigns in France (1230 and 1242), his choice of friends and advisers, together with the cost of his scheme to make one of his younger sons King of Sicily and help the Pope against the Holy Roman Emperor, led to further disputes with the barons and united opposition in Church and State.

Although Henry was extravagant and his tax demands were resented, the king's accounts show a list of many charitable donations and payments for building works (including the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey which began in 1245).
The Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster (1259) were attempts by the nobles to define common law in the spirit of Magna Carta, control appointments and set up an aristocratic council. Henry tried to defeat them by obtaining papal absolution from his oaths, and enlisting King Louis XI's help. Henry renounced the Provisions in 1262 and war broke out. The barons, under their leader, Simon de Montfort, were initially successful and even captured Henry.

However, Henry escaped, joined forces with the lords of the Marches (on the Welsh border), and finally defeated and killed de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Royal authority was restored by the Statute of Marlborough (1267), in which the king also promised to uphold Magna Carta and some of the Provisions of Westminster.
Henry III Duke of Normandy (1216-1259) King of England (1216-1272) (I2690)
Henry the Younger, aggrieved at his lack of power and egged on by his father Henry's enemies, rebelled against him. He was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey, and supported by several powerful English barons as well as the kings of France and Scotland. Even Queen Eleanor escaped from house arrest and tried to join him, but was intercepted en route. Henry II's position was more precarious at this point than at any previous time in his reign. If he even appeared to be losing, most of the nobles of England were poised to desert him. He fought a masterful defensive campaign, humiliating the French and Bretons, and crushing any opposition in England, whilst his agents defeated and captured William of Scotland in 1174. Henry the Younger surrendered, and his father, shaken by the experience, acknowledged many of his sons' grievances, assigning revenues to each of them.

In 1183, Henry the Younger tried again. Henry's oldest son was something of a dilettante, with a puffed-up idea of his own abilities and importance. When Henry II refused to give him control of Normandy, or any other land that would help pay his debts, he made advances to the barons of Aquitaine. Richard complained and started fortifying his castles when Henry prevaricated. During the negotiations which followed, Henry the Younger attempted to ambush his father at Limoges. Battle lines were drawn: Henry brought up forces to besiege the town, while Henry the Younger was joined by troops from his brother Geoffrey and the new king Philip of France. Forced to flee from Limoges, after robbing the local shrine to pay his troops, Henry the Younger went on the run, moving aimlessly through Aquitaine until he caught dysentery and died. With his death, the rebellion petered out.
Henry the Younger (I2725)
186 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5419)
Hugh "le Gros" Lupus d' Avranches Earl of Chester was born between 1047 and 1050. He died on 27 Jul 1101. The Palatine Earldom of Chester is now vested in the British Crown, and is traditionally a title held by the Prince of Wales. In 1071, William the Conqueror made his nephew, Hugh, Earl of Chester, giving him the whole of the county Palatine of Chester " hold as freely by the sword as he [the King] himself held the kingdom of England by the crown" As Count or Earl Palatine he had extradordinary authority within his provinces - this was seen as necessary due to the need to defend the Marches from the incursions of the Welsh - and as such he had his own Court and hereditary barons who each had their own jurisdiction, and power of "life and death" - legend has it that the Barons of Malpas, (later the Egertons from whom the Wedgwoods of Harracles etc. descend) were particularly prone to sentence the latter. The hereditary Barons created by Hugh are as follows, after the reversion of the Earldom with the crown, these dignities became only titular.

Illegitimate children:
Ottiwell, tutir to the children of Henry I, died in the White Ship disaster
Robert, Abbot of Bury St Edmunds
William d' Abrincis, whose daughter Lucia married Aubrey de Vere, Earl of Ghisnesand 1st Earl of Oxford

also called Hugh The Fat, or Hugh The Wolf, •French Hugues Le Gros, French-•Latin Hugues Lupus son of Richard, Viscount d'Avranches, and probable companion of William the Conqueror, who made him Earl of Chester in 1071. (He inherited his fatherer's viscountship sometime after 1082.) He had special privileges in his earldom, and he held land in 20 counties. Hugh was called Le Gros because of his great bulk and Lupus because of his ferocity. He regarded Saint Anselm as his friend, and he showed the customary liberality to religious houses. His life was mainly spent fighting in Wales and in Normandy. Hugh's only son Richard, who was childless, drowned in the White Ship in November 1120.
d' Avranches, Hugh Earl of Chester (I2747)
If you check around the web, you will find much confusion as to who Baldwin's wife is and what their daughter was called and who she married....

A. has "Seigneur Baldwin Fitz Gilbert 'the Sheriff' de Brion (about 1022-1090)" married to "Albreda d' Abrancis (About 1037-)" with a daughter "Emma de Crispin". This Emma married (1) "William d' Abrincis" (their son is Robert) (2) "William Avenel"

B. Robin Young has:
Baldwin DE BRION [son of Gilbert de Crispin Count of Brion] married Albreda.
They had the following children:
Richard DE BRION.
Maud Matilda or Emma DE BRION (DE BOVILL).

C. has...
Albreda GOZ
Father: Richard GOZ (Count of Avranches)
Mother: Emma de CONTEVILLE
Family 1 : Baldwin FitzGilbert de BRIONNE (Baron Okehampton)
2. Richard FitzWilliam Abrincis REDVERS (Earl of Devon)
3. Adelicia Emma de BRYONIS

Adelicia Emma de BRYONIS
DEATH: 24 Aug 1142
Father: Baldwin FitzGilbert de BRIONNE (Baron Okehampton)
Mother: Albreda GOZ
Family 1 : William d' ABRINCIS
1. Robert d' ABRINCIS (Baron Okehampton)

Albreda le Goz married to Baldwin "The Sheriff" of Okehampton Fitzgilbert de Moels
with children
Emma Fitzgilbert
Roger de Moels
John Burguillon de Newton
Richard of Devon de Redvers

E. Ancient Families has daughter Emma as daughter by second wife Emma who had previously been married.
Baldwin Comte de Brionne (I2820)
If you have a subscription to you can follow John Howard Percy Larsen from the Fox-Wakefield and Family Connections at . These notes are from the owner of that tree, Helga Fox:

Larsens/Jensons on S.S. ''Reichstag'' 1873 From Hamburg, Germany to Maryborough, Queensland, Australia

For a photo and a description of S.S. ''Reichstag'' go to


Carl Martin Larsen age 41 born abt 1832 Norway, died Queensland, Australia 1881 (Entered as Martin Larsen born Norway aged 45 on Death Record)

Ingeborg Larson (wife of Carl Martin) age 47 born Norway died Queensland, Australia 1879 (Transcribed on Death Record as Inborg Larsen daughter of - Johsen (I think this this should read as Jensen?) and Yurgine -, born Norway aged 54 years) On son's Death Record Ingeborg's name is Ingeborg Anne Jenson.

Ludwig Larsen (Ludwig August Larsen, son of Carl Martin and Ingeborg) age 10 born 1863 Norway, married Martha Le-Neve Hutchins in 1888 Queensland, Australia and was listed as a baker in the Electoral Rolls. Ludwig and Martha had 11 Children, Florence Ruby b 1891, Herbert Alexander b 1892, William Edgar b 1893, Harold Leslie b 1895, Elsie Murial b 1896, Winifred Edna b 1898, Lilian Ivy b 1900, Lelia Esme b 1903, John Howard Percy b 1905, Edwin Stanley b 1906, Ernest Dudley b 1909. Ludwig died 1928 Queensland, Australia. His parents are entered on his Death Record as Carl Martin Larsen and Ingeborg Anne Jenson. Although Ludwig died in 1928 he appears with his wife Martha on the 1930 Electoral Roll in Buss Street, Bundaberg.
Larsen, Ludwig August (I4160)
In 1042 Edward 'the Confessor' became King. As the surviving son of Ethelred and his second wife, Emma, he was a half-brother of Hardicanute. With few rivals (Canute's line was extinct and Edward's only male relatives were two nephews in exile), Edward was undisputed king; the threat of usurpation by the King of Norway rallied the English and Danes in allegiance to Edward.

Brought up in exile in Normandy, Edward lacked military ability or reputation. His Norman sympathies caused tensions with one of Canute's most powerful earls, Godwin of Wessex, whose daughter, Edith, Edward married in 1045 (the marriage was childless).

These tensions resulted in the crisis of 1050-52, when Godwin assembled an army to defy Edward. With reinforcements from the earls of Mercia and Northumberland, Edward banished Godwin from the country and sent Queen Edith from court. Edward used the opportunity to appoint Normans to places at court, and as sheriffs at local level.

William, Duke of Normandy may have been designated heir. However, the hostile reaction to this increased Norman influence brought Godwin back. Edward subsequently formed a closer alliance with Godwin's son Harold, who led the army as the king's deputy (he defeated a Welsh incursion in 1055) and whom Edward may have named as heir on his deathbed.

Warding off political threats, England during the last 15 years of Edward's reign was relatively peaceful. Prosperity was rising as agricultural techniques improved and the population rose to around one million. Taxation was comparatively lightht, as Edward was not an extravagant king and lived off the revenues of his own lands (approximately £5,500 a year) - nor did he have to pay for expensive military campaigns. Deeply religious, Edward was responsible for building Westminster Abbey (in the Norman style) and he was buried there after his death in 1066.
Edward the Confessor King of England (I2877)
In KGR data. I have been unable to find any support for it.

The Hilditch family went to Antrim early in the 1600s, settling in a small triangular area running from Carrickfergus and Belfast up across to Larne, Straid, Ballyeaston and ending up at Ballymena. I believe (though cannot prove it) that they came over from England, which is where the family appear to originate from. They were in Antrim very early - I understand that there is a record of a Hilditch in Antrim in the early 1600s in Carrickfergus.  I suspect that they came over at the same time as so many of the Scots, to settle the north. I also understand that they were Presbyterian and were heavily involved with the Presbyterian church in Carrickfergus early on. My own Hilditch ancestors came from the parish of Ballyeaston, most likely living at farms round that area - certainly two of the small hamlets had Hilditch members living there, but it is such a rare name and only found in that very small area, that I am pretty sure they are all descended from one common ancestor. They certainly appear to stick to the same first names - as I guess did most of their neighbours - John, Samuel, Thomas, William, John and Hugh, with Margaret, Mary, and and Agnes for the girls.  I have a lot of info on some branches from the 1840s onward, and have tried to search for earlier information but both of the parish records I need were destroyed in 1922 so will probably never be able to make the connection - however I do know that many of the surnames mentioned on your list are the same as those in the area where my family lived.
Hilditch, Mary (I3228)
In respect of their children there is much disagreement except that Ansfrid is a constant though the dates are doubtful...

According to [inactive]...
*Ansfred I "the Dane Rollosson Count of Hiesmer born about 0937 Tillieres, Normandy, France; died after 0973
*Rollo Rollosson born about 0940/50 Normandie, France

According to ...
Anslech (Baron) de TURSTAIN ;  
Ansfried (Ansfrid) `the Dane' (Count) of HIESMER

According to and several other sites ...
Ansfrid de Goz, VISCOUNT [or similar]

According to ...
"with issue, including:" … Ansfrid I Hrolfsson the Dane ( abt 935 )

According to Robin Young
Ansfrid (Rollosson) GOZ Viscount of Hiemois was born 963(937?) and died 1035.
Wymund, Witmund Guitmund Guitemonde or Wymconde was born 1053 and died 1109 (which dates are not possible if Turstan is his father, but the link may be provided to indicate a link exists even if the intermediate generations are not known).
Turstan, Hrolf (I2797)
Is this the kinsman "father" Michael refers to in his will. Why doesn't he call him son?
He calls his nieces kinswomen so perhaps Henry is a nephew.

After the registers of Preston were destroyed in the fire of 1658, new records began with Baptism 3 May 1661 "Son of Michael" a Henry and in 1682 to 1698 the children of Henry and Elizabeth his wife at nearby Ash.

Henry Hougham is on marriage regs of Preston married 1681 Elizabeth Harris. The vicars and historians of today (19 Century) give him as son of Michael the Church Warden, if so he was living when Michael died - why didn't Michael name a child of his own in his will - he named only nieces a nephew and a "kinsman" Henry - some relationship did exist the Marriage licence1681 Michael died 1679. His brother Richard died 1686

Achievements ltd have a Mary christened 20 Nov 1683 to Henry and Elizabeth
Huffam, Henry (I2671)
It is perhaps somewhat ironic that the only two "Royal" burials in Canterbury Cathedral represent an ancient conflict for the throne of England. Although, Edward, The Black Prince and heir to the Throne, was outlived by his Father, Edward III, his son, Richard, became Richard II. It was the son of Edward's (The Black Prince) younger brother, John, the Duke of Lancaster, also known as John of Gaunt, who deposed Richard II and eventually became Henry IV.

The Black Prince seemed to have had a long and close association with Canterbury and its Cathedral. It is suggested, although not actually proven, the The Prince was educated by the then Prior of the Monastery. He was responsible for the construruction of The Chantry in the Crypt at the time of his marriage to his Cousin, Joan Plantagenet, The Fair Maid of Kent. His will not only gave the design for his tomb but specified that he should be buried in the Crypt. This request was obviously not carried out and the "hero of the English people" was given pride of place alongside the tomb of St. Thomas in the Trinity Chapel. The effigy of The Prince, although gold in colour, was cast in latten, an alloy of copper, zinc, lead and tin.

In fact, Edward was a complex character. The leader of the English Army at the Battle of Crecy at the age of 16 and also victor at the Battle of Poitiers, ten years later when he captured the French King, John the Good. After this Battle, Edward brought King John to Canterbury and they worshipped at the tomb of St. Thomas together. It was obviously these victories that made him popular although there was a lot less enthusiasm about the level of taxes that his campaigns cost. Towards the end of his life, after subduing a rebellion at Limoges, he had 3,000 of the inhabitants, men, women and children, slaughtered. Not the kind of action that would have made acceptable reading in The Times these days.

Prince Edward the Black Prince (I2737)
King of Denmark abt 0988-1014, King of England 1016-1035

The son of a Danish king, Sweyn 'Forkbeard' began conquering territory in England in 1003, effectively devastating much of southern and midland England. The English nobility became so disillusioned with their existing king, Ethelred 'The Unready', that they acknowledged Sweyn as king in 1013. Sweyn's reign was short, as he died in 1014, but his son Canute the Great soon returned and reclaimed control of England.


Sweyn was the son of Harold "Gormsson", king of the Danes and the man who "made the Danes Christian". Such was the opposition to King Harold and the imposition of the new religion, that Sweyn led a revolt against him, becoming king of Denmark in his place in about 988.

Sweyn raided England in 994, but he was not secure enough in Denmark to attempt a full scale conquest. Gradually the raids became bigger and more threatening and Sweyn was able to extract larger tribute from the English king, Aethelred. The tribibute money, which became known as Danegeld, was paid in 994, 1002, 1005 and 1012 and paid for Sweyn's fleet. From 1009 onwards Sweyn's aim was not just raiding but conquest, and a succession of campaigns ended with Sweyn being recognized as king of England in 1013.

His reign was brief however, for he died on 3 February 1014. His son, with whom he campaigned, was Cnut, king of England from 1016 to 1035.

Sweyn King of England (I3612)
King of England (1154-1189)
Duke of Normandy (1151-1189)

Henry II, first of the Angevin kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs. He came to the throne amid the anarchy of Stephen's reign and promptly collared his errant barons. He refined Norman government and created a capable, self-standing bureaucracy. His energy was equaled only by his ambition and intelligence. Henry survived wars, rebellion, and controversy to successfully rule one of the Middle Ages' most powerful kingdoms.

Henry was raised in the French province of Anjou and first visited England in 1142 to defend his mother's claim to the disputed throne of Stephen. His continental possessions were already vast before his coronation: He acquired Normandy and Anjou upon the death of his father in September 1151, and his French holdings more than doubled with his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitane (ex-wife of King Louis VII of France). In accordance with the Treaty of Wallingford, a succession agreement signed by Stephen and Matilda in 1153, Henry was crowned in October 1154. The continental empire ruled by Henry and his sons included the French counties of Brittany, Maine, Poitou, Touraine, Gascony, Anjou, Aquitane, and Normandy. Henry was technically a feudal vassal of the king of France but, in reality, owned more territory and was more powerful than his French lord. Although King John (Henry's son) lost most of the English holdings in France, English kings laid claim to the French throne until the fifteenth century. Henry also extended his territory in the British Isles in two significant ways. First, he retrieved Cumbria and Northumbria form Malcom IV of Scotland and settled the Anglo-Scot border in the North. Secondly, although his success with Welsh campaigns was limited, Henry invaded Ireland and secured an English presence on the island.

English and Norman barons in Stephen's reign manipulated feudal law to undermine royal authority; Henry instituted many reforms to weaken traditional feudal ties and strengthen his position. Unauthorized castles built during the previous reign w were razed. Monetary payments replaced military service as the primary duty of vassals. The Exchequer was revitalized to enforce accurate record keeping and tax collection. Incompetent sheriffs were replaced and the authority of royal courts was expanded. Henry empowered a new social class of government clerks that stabilized procedure - the government could operate effectively in the king's absence and would subsequently prove sufficiently tenacious to survive the reign of incompetent kings. Henry's reforms allowed the emergence of a body of common law to replace the disparate customs of feudal and county courts. Jury trials were initiated to end the old Germanic trials by ordeal or battle. Henry's systematic approach to law provided a common basis for development of royal institutions throughout the entire realm.

The process of strengthening the royal courts, however, yielded an unexpected controversy. The church courts instituted by William the Conqueror became a safe haven for criminals of varying degree and ability, for one in fifty of the English population qualified as clerics. Henry wished to transfer sentencing in such cases to the royal courts, as church courts merely demoted clerics to laymen. Thomas Beckett, Henry's close friend and chancellor since 1155, was named Archbishop of Canteterbury in June 1162 but distanced himself from Henry and vehemently opposed the weakening of church courts. Beckett fled England in 1164, but through the intervention of Pope Adrian IV (the lone English pope), returned in 1170.He greatly angered Henry by opposing to the coronation of Prince Henry. Exasperated, Henry hastily and publicly conveyed his desire to be rid of the contentious Archbishop - four ambitious knights took the king at his word and murdered Beckett in his own cathedral on December 29, 1170. Henry endured a rather limited storm of protest over the incident and the controversy passed.

Henry's plans of dividing his myriad lands and titles evoked treachery from his sons. At the encouragement - and sometimes because of the treatment - of their mother, they rebelled against their father several times, often with Louis VII of France as their accomplice. The deaths of Henry the Young King in 1183 and Geoffrey in 1186 gave no respite from his children's rebellious nature; Richard, with the assistance of Philip II Augustus of France, attacked and defeated Henry on July 4, 1189 and forced him to accept a humiliating peace. Henry II died two days later, on July 6, 1189.

A few quotes from historic manuscripts shed a unique light on Henry, Eleanor, and their sons.

From Sir Winston Churchill Kt, 1675: "Henry II Plantagenet, the very first of that name and race, and the very greatest King that England ever knew, but withal the most unfortunate . . . his death being imputed to those only to whom himself had given life, his ungracious sons. . ."

From Sir Richard Baker, A Chronicle of the Kings of England: Concerning endowments of mind, he was of a spirit in the highest degree generous . . . His custom was to be always in action; for which cause, if he had no real wars, he would have feigned . . . To his children he was both indulgent and hard; for out of indulgence he caused his son henry to be crowned King in his own time; and out of hardness he caused his younger sons to rebel against him . . . He married Eleanor, daughter of William Duke of Guienne, late wife of Lewis the Seventh of France. Some say King Lewis carried her into the Holy Land, where she carried herself not very holily, but led a licentious life; and, which is the worst kind of licentiousness, in carnal familiarity with a Turk."
-- Encyclopedia Britannica
Plantagenet, Henry II King of England, Duke of Normandy (I2694)
King of England and Duke of Normandy (1189-1199)

Richard I, the Lion-hearted, spent much of his youth in his mother's court at Poitiers. Richard cared much more for the continental possessions of his mother than for England - he also cared much more for his mother than for his father. Family considerations influenced much of his life: he fought along side of his brothers Prince Henry and Geoffrey in their rebellion of 1173-4; he fought for his father against his brothers when they supported an 1183 revolt in Aquitane; and he joined Philip II of France against his father in 1188, defeating Henry in 1189.

Richard spent but six months of his ten-year reign in England. He acted upon a promise to his father to join the Third Crusade and departed for the Holy Land in 1190 (accompanied by his partner-rival Philip II of France). In 1191, he conquered Cyprus en route to Jerusalem and performed admirably against Saladin, nearly taking the holy city twice. Philip II, in the meantime, returned to France and schemed with Richard's brother John. The Crusade failed in its primary objective of liberating the Holy Land from Moslem Turks, but did have a positive result - easier access to the region for Christian pilgrims through a truce with Saladin. Richard received word of John's treachery and decided to return home; he was captured by Leopold V of Austria and imprisoned by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. The administrative machinery of Henry II insured the continuance of royal authority, as Richard was unable to return to his realm until 1194. Upon his return, he crushed a coup attempt by John and regained lands lost to Philip II during the German captivity. Richard's war with Philip continued sporadically until the French were finally defeated near Gisors in 1198.

Richard died April 6, 1199, from a wound received in a skirmish at the castle of Chalus in the Limousin. Near his death, Richard finally reconciled his position with his late father, as evidenced by Sir Richard Baker in A Chronicle of the Kings of England: "The remorse for his undutifulness towards his father, was living in him till he died; for at his death he remembered it with bewailing, and desired to be buried as near him as might be, perhaps as thinking they should meet the sooooner, that he might ask him forgiveness in another world." Richard's prowess and courage in battle earned him the nickname Coeur De Lion ("heart of the lion"), but the training of his mother's court is revealed in a verse Richard composed during his german captivity:

No one will tell me the cause of my sorrow Why they have made me a prisoner here. Wherefore with dolour I now make my moan; Friends had I many but help have I none. Shameful it is that they leave me to ransom, To languish here two winters long.
Plantagenet, Richard the Lionheart King of England, Duke of Normandy (I2726)
Labourer and Govt Printer

About 1864 to 1872 the Henry Hougham family lived in part of the establishment where Mary Ann was a governess in which the elderley Miss Bullocks resided and were Principals of a school for young ladies. It was on Mile End Road nearly opposite Bakers Row - This latter had name changed some years later to Valence street. In 1872/73 the family lived at Hackney Road. When Mary Ann was born in 1856 they lived at 9 Red Lion Street at Wapping

The daughters chief companions were the two Hunter girls, one named Annie these two sisters married two brothers named Button. Mr Hunter lived at 118 Burton Road Clapham park. He had a box factory. Here the Hunter and Hougham daughters spent many spare hours making fancy card board and lace trimmed boxes- gift boxes for jewellary

Their brother Fred worked in the City of London at Pall Mall lifeguards abt 1862 from where as a youth about 13 of age he emigrated to Australia. The brother Henry went to sea as a captain's cabin boy at about the same age and he later made his home in Canada first, then in Rhode Island. By the time all were grown, three daughters and one son were in Queensland Australia and one son and one daughter in USA. By 1957 the 3rd and 4th generations are numerous in both places but the surmane Hougham has died out
Hougham, Henry (I4178)
Ludwig Larsen (Ludwig August Larsen, son of Carl Martin and Ingeborg) age 10 born 1863 Norway, married Martha Le-Neve Hutchins in 1888 Queensland, Australia and was listed as a baker in the Electoral Rolls. Ludwig and Martha had 11 Children, Florence Ruby b 1891, Herbert Alexander b 1892, William Edgar b 1893, Harold Leslie b 1895, Elsie Murial b 1896, Winifred Edna b 1898, Lilian Ivy b 1900, Lelia Esme b 1903, John Howard Percy b 1905, Edwin Stanley b 1906, Ernest Dudley b 1909. Ludwig died 1928 Queensland, Australia. His parents are entered on his Death Record as Carl Martin Larsen and Ingeborg Anne Jenson. Although Ludwig died in 1928 he appears with his wife Martha on the 1930 Electoral Roll in Buss Street, Bundaberg.

Ludwig and Martha's son Herbert Alexander Larsen fought in WWI. Herbert an assistant chemist before the War, was gazetted in 1816 for Mention in Despatches and again in 1917 when he was awarded the Serbian Gold Medal. Herbert married Ida Agnes Fox, daughter of Alfred Fox and Agnes Atna/Atma Daniell and worked as a sugar chemist. For a picture and info on the Serbian Gold Medal go to

Another son of Ludwig and Martha, Harold Leslie Larsen also fought in WWI and died on 9th November 1917 and is buried in the Belgian Battery Corner Cemetery, Belgium, II. D. 4. Harold Leslie Larsen was also gazzetted in 1918 because he was awarded the Military Medal.

I suspect that Edwin Stanley Larsen married Ida Agnes Fox's sister Frances Lydia Fox after 1930 as in 1936 he is living in William Street, Bundaberg with a Frances Lydia Larsen.

Christian Larsen (Christian Leonard Larsen, son of Carl Martin and Ingeborg) age 5 born 1868 died Queensland, Australia 1889 (Entered as son of Martin Larsen and Engebord Jenson).

I'm now looking for more information to see if there is a connection with the Larsens and Jensons mentioned below who were also on the ''Reichstag'' in 1873.

Doris Larsen aged 37 born circa 1836.
Dorothea Larsen aged 25 born circa 1848.
Frederick Larsen aged 21 born circa 1852.
Jens Larsen aged 23 born circa 1850.
Mina Larsen aged 2 born circa 1871.
Morten Larsen aged 35 born circa 1838.
Niels Larsen aged 28 born circa 1845
Olma Larsen aged 7 born circa 1866.


Anna Jenson aged 27 born circa 1846.
Gabriel Jenson aged 21 born circa 1852.
Hans Jenson aged 23 born circa 1850.
Magnus Peter Jenson aged 30 born circa 1843.
Maren Jenson aged 24 born circa 1849.
Family F3527
Madeleine Mitchell writes: Louisa was one of the Outside (outside of marriage) children of John Cover, at her baptism in 1862, although she was born in 1846. Her mother was listed as Sarah Smith. The fact that her mother's surname is used is significant because it means John Cover and Sarah Smith were not married. Our family lore is that John Cover had this outside family before he married Margaret Ellis in 1862. (He had 7 sons and one daughter including Septimus Royes Cover by Margaret Ellis Cover). Louisa therefore was probably of colour, and I suppose could have been mistaken for an Indian but I think that unlikely. You will see that the children of Louisa (in which she is listed as Louisa Royes nee Cover) born at Knapdale were born in the 1870's. This however does not answer the question of which Charles John Sr or Jr was the father of these children since senior lived to 1877 and Junior to 1905. Unfortunately there are no Methodist marriage records on Patricia Jackson's site, although the Mormon church did microfilm Dissenter Marriages which included Methodist records. It looks like they were married it was between 1862 and 1872. In the Law 6 register at the baptism of the children Charles Royes is listed as Planter, and the children were M or F Coloured, Legitimate.
This will probably muddy your waters more, but it is as I know it.
Cover, Louisa (I3864)

      1 2 3 4 5 ... 14» Next»