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Report: Timeline events

         Description: This is a complete list of timeline events. When you select one or more persons in the family tree you can view a timeline appropriate to their time.


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# evday evmonth evyear evdetail
1 27  0735  Death of Bede at Wearmouth, England - the 'Father of English History' and author of Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English People) 
2 0802  Egbert, king of Wessex, won allegiance of all English and became the first king of all England. 
3 0868  The first printed book, a copy of the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, is produced in China using carved wooden blocks to print the text on paper. 
4 0871  Alfred the Great, ruler of England to 899. Saxon: 4th son of Ethelwulf, defeated Danes, fortified London. 
5 0900  Vikings begin three centuries of exploration throughout the Arctic region. During their travels they colonize Iceland, settle Greenland, and visit North America. 
6 0900  Fish are recorded as being farmed in China 
7 18  0978  Ethelred II the Unready, ruler of England to 1016. Saxon: 2nd son of Edgar, half-brother of Edward, married Emma of Normandy. See Emma's file in this family tree 
8 1000  Polynesians arrive in New Zealand between 1000 and 1300, beginning human settlement of the world's last sizeable unoccupied landmass. 
9 30  11  1016  Canute the Great (or Cnut or Knut), ruler of England to 1035. Viking: Became King of England by conquest and election. Also King of Denmark, Norway and parts of Sweden. Gave Wessex to Edmund, married Emma of Normandy. See Emma's file in this family tree. 
10 1023  First paper money printed in China 
11 12  11  1035  Harald I, Harefoot, ruler of England to 1040. Viking: Natural son of Canute the Great 
12 17  1040  Harthacanute/Hardicanute, ruler of England to 1042. Dane: Son of Canute the Great by Emma of Normandy, also King of Denmark 1035-1042 
13 1042  Edward the Confessor, ruler of England 1042-1066. Saxon: Son of Ethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy. Canonized 1161. 
14 1044  Use of gunpowder recorded in Chinese textbook for war 
15 1054  Church East (Orthodox)-West (Catholic) split 
16 14  10  1066  Battle of Hastings: English vs. Normans. The Normans under William the Conqueror win. 
17 25  12  1066  William the Conqueror, ruler of England to 1087, by conquest. Norman: Second cousin to Edward the Confessor. Defeated Harold II at the battle of Hastings 
18 1085  Population of England estimated at about 2 million. World population is estimated at about 300 million
19 1086  William "the Conqueror" set up the Domesday Book to find out who owned what land and livestock in England. 
20 1095  The First Crusade in the Near East was a decisive Crusader victory. Nine major and some lesser Crusades extended from 1095 to 1272. 
21 1096  Teaching existed at the University of Oxford in some form in 1096 and may go back to the 10th century 
22 1100  Henry I Beauclerc, ruler of England to 1135. Norman: Youngest son of William the Conqueror. Seizes crown when brother William II is shot while hunting. 
23 1117  First recorded use of a magnetic compass (China) 
24 1138  Civil war in England, known as the Anarchy 
25 25  10  1154  Henry II, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Son of Geoffrey Plantaganet by Matilda, daughter of Henry I 
26 29  12  1170  Henry II's men murder Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury 
27 1189  Richard the Lionheart, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Eldest surviving son of Henry II, crusader, and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He is killed fighting Phillip II of France. Richard's brain was buried at the abbey of Charroux in Poitou, his heart was buried at Rouen in Normandy, and the rest of his body was buried at the feet of his father at Fontevraud Abbey in Anjou. 
28 1200  Functional buttons with buttonholes for fastening or closing clothing appeared first in Germany in the 13th century. They soon became widespread with the rise of snug-fitting garment in 13th- and 14th-century Europe. 
29 1202  The Hindu-Arabic numbering system (documented from the ninth century in India) introduced to Europe by mathematician Fibonacci
30 1204  England loses mainland Normandy but keeps the Channel Islands - they are called still "Normandy" in the description of the English royal domains. 
31 24  1209  Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) founds the Franciscan order, which is devoted to a life of poverty. 
32 15  1215  Magna Carta signed at Runnymede in the River Thames. 
33 18  10  1216  Henry III of Winchester, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Son of John, acceded aged 9, under regency until 1227. 
34 1233  First coal is mined in Newcastle, England 
35 1250  The gun invented in China. 
36 20  1265  First representative English Parliament convened, representing not just a small number of barons, but knights and gentry. 
37 16  11  1272  Edward I Longshanks, ruler of England. Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Son of Henry III. 
38 1279  Kublai Khan establishes the Yuan Dynasty, unifying all of China from Central Asia to Korea. During this period European travelers first begin to arrive in China, marking the true beginning of 'East-West' relationships 
39 1280  Whilst "reading stones" made of glass (placed over text) were developed in the 9th century, the modern spectacles were not developed until 1280-1300 in Italy. 
40 1280  Mechanical clocks invented. 
41 1287  First commission of inquiry into levels of smoke in the city of London. Coal burning would be banned (ineffectively) in 1307. 
42 1290  Edward I expels all Jews from England. This was not legally revoked until 1656. 
43 1295  Modern glassmaking begins in Venice leading to the development of spectacles, telescopes and microscopes. 
44 1301  Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as the first English-appointed Prince of Wales. It is always given to the heir-apparent of the English throne.  
45 1307  Edward II of Carnarvon, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Eldest surviving son of Edward I. Forced to abdicate by Parliament. 
46 23  1314  Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent 
47 1326  First mention of a handgun
48 1327  Edward III of Windsor, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Eldest son of Edward II. 
49 1328  Invention of the sawmill spurs the English shipbuilding industry 
50 1337  Philip declares Edward's fiefs forfeit and begins harassing the frontiers of Aquitaine; Edward III, provoked by these attacks on his territories in France, declares himself king of France; 'The Hundred Years' War' ensues 
51 1343  Geoffrey Chaucer, first great English poet, author of The Canterbury Tales 
52 1346  The Black Death peaked in England but there were several subsequent outbreaks. Reaching from India to Iceland, it reduces population in Asia and Europe by a quarter or a third. It is the last time global population declines. 
53 1350  English emerges as England's national language about mid 14th century 
54 1360  Guy de Chauliac, in Chirurgia Magna, recommended extending fractured limbs with pulleys and weights and recommended replacing lost teeth with bone fastened to the sound teeth with gold wire. 
55 1368  The Ming Dynasty is established after defeating and expelling the Mongols. The Ming rulers once again isolate China, cutting off contact with outside nations, emphasizing nationalism, and erecting land barriers in a fearful attempt to protect the country from (perceived) invasions. 
56 22  1377  Richard II of Bordeaux king of England (at the age of ten). House of Plantaganet, son of Edward the Black Prince. 
57 1380  First English language Bible (John Wycliffe) 
58 1381  Peasants' Revolt in England over attempt to lower wages of farm labourers marks the beginning of the end of serfdom 
59 1390  The oldest surviving cookbook in English is The Forme of Cury, from about 1390. 
60 30  1399  Henry IV, ruler of England 1399-1413. House of Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line: Son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 4th son of Edward III. Chosen by Parliament as successor to Richard II
61 1400  Sea levels approx 1.9m (6ft) lower than today 
62 1400  The first piano, called the Spinet, is invented. 
63 1400  First golf balls invented. 
64 1405  Admiral Cheng Ho begins his voyages for Emperor Chu Ti. The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne rules the South Pacific and Indian Ocean until 1433. Did the Chinese map most of the world? See http://www.1421.tv/
65 1411  Charles VI of France gave sole rights to the aging of Roquefort cheese to the village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, and all Roquefort still must be aged in the caves there today. 
66 21  1413  Henry V, ruler of England 1413-1422. House of Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line: Eldest son of Henry IV 
67 1415  Henry V invades France, and defeats the French at Battle of Agincourt 
68 1420  Oil painting invented. 
69 31  1422  Henry VI, ruler of England 1422-1461. House of Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line: 9-month old only son of Henry V 
70 30  1431  Joan of Arc burned as a witch at Rouen; Henry VI of England crowned king of France in Paris 
71 1437  Johannes Gutenberg became the first in Europe to print with movable type cast in molds. 
72 1439  In an effort to stop the spread of disease, kissing is banned in England. 
73 1441  Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish slave trade. For more than four centuries this trade foments exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Africa, Europe, and the Americas. 
74 1444  Nicholas of Cusa denied that the earth could be at the center of the universe since the universe is unbounded and made several astronomical claims including that the Earth moved around the sun, the stars were other suns, and had inhabited worlds. He also performed the first modern, formal biological experiment from which he concluded that plants absorb nourishment from the air. 
75 1449  Lorenzo de Medici of Florence. Many in this Italian noble family were patrons of learning and the arts. Lorenzo's great granddaughter, Catherine, is known as the 'mother of French haute cuisine' because when she married the French king Henry II, she brought the finest Italian chefs, and her passion for fine food, with her to France. 
76 1452  Wars of the Roses, N and W = Lancaster, S and E = York 
77 1459  William Caxton invents printing press with movable type, starts printing books in English and Latin 
78 1461  Edward IV, ruler of England to 1483 following the Battle of Mortimer's Cross and Battle of Towton. House of York: Great-great-grandson of Edward III, son of Duke of York. 
79 1467  Silk industry established in Lyon, France, with Italian workers. 
80 30  10  1470  Henry VI restored to throne when Edward IV deposed by Earl of Warwick.  
81 1475  Muzzle-loaded rifles invented in Italy and Germany. 
82 1476  William Caxton sets up printing press in Westminster, England 
83 1482  Leonardo da Vinci began his notebooks in pursuit of evidence that the human body is microcosmic, which, by 1510-1511, included dissections of the human body. These notebooks, which circulated in manuscript copies, also contained his thoughts on the impossibility of perpetual motion, dynamics, statics, numerous machines, and other matters. 
84 26  1483  Richard III, King of England. House of York. Father Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York 
85 22  1485  Henry VII, ruler of England to 1508. House of Tudor: Son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, whose father had married the widow of Henry V; descended from Edward III through his mother, Mary Beaufort, via John of Gaunt. By marriage with daughter of Edward IV he united Lancaster and York. 
86 1490  Newsbooks being produced at the rate of 20 per year 
87 12  10  1492  Christopher Columbus 'discovers' America at 2 am 
88 1494  The first written mention of Scotch whisky is in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. A Friar John Cor was the distiller
89 1497  In a two-year voyage, Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope and reaches India 
90 1500  The mainspring invented, leading to development of the watch 
91 1500  Extinction of the New Zealand moa, a giant flightless bird, after about 500 years of pressure from Maori hunters. 
92 1500  The first flush toilets appeared in Europe. 
93 1500  Population of London about 75,000 
94 1501  Ocean trade route from Europe to India established 
95 1503  The pocket handkerchief appears in Europe 
96 1508  Michelangelo paints the vault of the Sistine Chapel 1508-12 
97 1509  Spain begins to settle Jamaica (Xamayca, meaning land of wood and water) calling it Santiago = St James. 
98 21  1509  Henry VIII. Ruler of England to 1547. House of Tudor: Only surviving son of Henry VII by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV
99 10  1509  John Calvin 1509-64, influential French theologian of the Protestant Reformation. His seminal work was Institutes of the Christian Religion
100 1510  Pocket watch invented by Peter Henlein
101 1512  Nikolaus Kopernikus, better known as Copernicus, circulated a manuscript, the Commentariolus, which hypothesized that the Earth was a planet and planets revolved in circles and epicircles around the Sun, that the Earth rotated daily, and regressions in planetary orbits were explained by the Earth's motions. 
102 1516  Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria decreed that beer could only be brewed from barley malt, hops and water. This Rheinheitsgebot (purity law) was probably the world's first consumer protection law
103 1517  Henry VIII forbids reading of Martin Luther's books, doesn't work; by 1527 some scholars attacking Church, call themselves Protestants, are considered heretics 
104 31  10  1517  The Protestant Reformation begins; Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences, on the church door at Wittenberg, Germany 
105 1519  Chocolate as a drink introduced to Europe 
106 1519  Avocados were introduced to Europe by Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés 
107 10  1519  Ferdinand Magellan begins his journey to circumnavigate the world with five ships and 270 men. In 1521 Magellan is killed by natives in the Philippines. Eventually in 1522, eighteen of Magellan's crew and one ship return 
108 1521  The Diet of Worms begins - the assembly of the Holy Roman Empire at which Martin Luther made his famous appearance. 
109 17  10  1521  Henry VIII receives the title Defender of the Faith from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther 
110 1525  Introduction of potato to Europe from South America 
111 1529  Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the 'Reformation Parliament' and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome 
112 1530  First public lottery - Italy 
113 1533  King granted divorce by his new Archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas Cranmer), marries Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth born, declared heir to throne, Mary set aside; monasteries dissolved; Pope excommunicates Henry VIII and Cranmer 
114 1534  Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England 
115 1535  Publication of first authorised translation of Bible (the Coverdale Bible
116 1535  Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy 
117 1536  Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell, completed in 1539. 
118 1540  Sir Francis Drake, English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, a renowned pirate, and politician of the Elizabethan era. 
119 1544  Tomatoes reach Europe. It is unclear where tomatoes may have been first domesticated but the two main possibilities are Peru and Mexico. The wild forms may have originated in either area, but it was the indigenous peoples of Mexico that first cultivated them. In fact, the common name tomato comes from tomatl, the word for this plant in the Nahuatl language of Mexico. 
120 1544  Henry VIII orders English translation of Bible placed in every parish church; Litany said in English for first time; Pope declares Henry deposed, supported by all Catholic princes, particularly France and Scotland; Henry builds 70-ship navy, arms people, fortifies coast 
121 1547  90% of English population estimated to be rural, average Tudor town = about 3,000 people. 
122 28  1547  Edward VI, ruler of England to 1553. House of Tudor: Son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, his 3rd queen. Ruled under regents (he was 9 years old when he became king). 
123 1549  Introduction of uniform worship in England based on Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer 
124 1550  Supposedly, the first café in the world opened in Constantinople
125 1550  Chocolate arrived in Europe. 
126 1553  Prospero Alpini was born. A physician and botanist, he is said to have introduced coffee and bananas to Europe and to have been the first to artificially fertilize date palms
127 1553  Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England 
128 10  1553  Lady Jane Grey proclaimed queen of England by Duke of Northumberland, her reign lasts nine days. She is executed 12 Feb 1554 at age 17 because of her father's involvement in Wyatt's Rebellion
129 1555  Protestants in England are persecuted and about 300, including Archbishop Cranmer, are burned at the stake 
130 1555  Michel de Notredame or Nostradamus published his book of prophecies Centuries Asrtologiques and Excellent er Moult Utile Opuscule a tous necessaire qui desirent avoir connaissance de plusieurs exq uises recettes ('An excellent and most useful little work essential to all who wish to become acquainted with some exquisite recipes'). 
131 17  11  1558  Elizabeth I, ruler of England to 1603. House of Tudor: Daughter of Henry VIII, by Anne Boleyn
132 1559  John Knox returns to Scotland aflame with Calvinism 
133 1560  Church of Scotland established - a reformed or presbyterian church 
134 22  1561  Francis Bacon English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, and author, served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England.  
135 1563  The Thirty-nine Articles, which complete establishment of the Anglican Church 
136 1564  William Shakespeare, playwright, poet, actor 
137 1565  Lead pencil invented 
138 1568  The Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral developed a method to bottle beer
139 1577  Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates the globe, plunders Spanish shipping (to 1580) 
140 1582  The new Gregorian calendar was adopted by most Catholic countries. Not adopted in England until 1752, by which time an adjustment of 11 days had to be made - see Dates and Calendars in Support 
141 1588  Spanish Armada - 60,000 troops, 30,000 sailors, 77,000 tons of shipping - sails against England, battle lasts one week, decimated by English then by gales 
142 1590  Sir John Harington is said to have invented 'The Ajax', a flush toilet, for Elizabeth I of England, who wouldn't use the contraption because it made too much noise. His design was ridiculed in England, but was adopted in France under the name Angrez. 
143 1590  Zacharias and Hans Janssen combined double convex lenses in a tube, producing the first telescope
144 1594  Irish Nine Years War (or Tyrone's Rebellion) between Gaelic Irish chieftains, notably Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Elizabethan English forces, mainly in Ulster. It ended with the Flight of the Earls and the Plantation of Ulster 
145 1596  The work of Dutch cartographer Abraham Ortelius suggests the possibility of continental drift, which will be described more forcefully by Alfred Wegener centuries later. 
146 1599  College of Physicians founded in Glasgow, Scotland 
147 1600  First cafés appear across Europe 
148 1600  William Gilbert, in De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth), held that the earth behaves like a giant magnet with its poles near the geographic poles. He coined the word electrica (from the Greek word for amber, elektron), and distinguished electricity from magnetism
149 1600  Population of London about 200,000 
150 31  12  1600  The British East India Company was incorporated by royal charter. It was created to compete in the East Indian spice trade. 
151 1601  Pyjamas were introduced in England as lounging attire in the 17th century but soon went out of fashion. About 1870 they reappeared in the Western world as sleeping attire for men 
152 1601  English Poor Law Act passed, prompted by three successive poor harvests resulting in demonstrations by starving peasants; codifies previous measures, differentiates between able-bodied and weak unemployed; town councils began to tax citizens to pay for alms 
153 1602  Founding of Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian Company") 
154 1603  The Plague again ravishes London and provincial towns killing 33,000 people 
155 24  1603  At end of Elizabeth I's reign, English population estimated at 4 million, 80% living in rural areas 
156 24  1603  James I ruler of England to 1625. House of Stuart: Son of Mary, Queen of Scots. First to call himself King of Great Britain. This became official with the Act of Union in 1707. 
157 1604  Robert Cawdrey's A Table Alphabeticall, first English dictionary, is published 
158 11  1605  Gunpowder Plot - Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament and James I 
159 1606  Willem Jansz in the Dwyflken lands on the west coast of Cape York peninsula. He is the first authenticated European discoverer of Australia. 
160 1609  Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, the world's first regular newspaper, is published in Germany 
161 1609  Galileo built a telescope with which he discovered the mountains on the moon, that the Milky Way consisted of innumerable stars, the four largest satellites of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and sunspots
162 1611  English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster 
163 1611  The King James or Authorised Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible published 
164 1612  Deforestation of England for charcoal to make iron already a problem, substitutes sought 
165 1615  The first tea is imported to the west 
166 1616  Italian philosopher Lucilio Vanini suggests that humans descended from apes. For this heresy, he is burned alive three years later. 
167 26  10  1616  Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog lands on Australia's west coast 
168 1617  The first one way streets were established in London. Seventeen one way streets were created to regulate 'disorder and rude behaviour of carmen, draymen, and others using cartes'. 
169 1620  A group of puritans from Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, later to be known as "pilgrims", land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the Mayflower 
170 1620  The first corn (maize) was discovered by some Pilgrims led by Myles Standish, while exploring the area near Provincetown, Massachusetts. They named the spot Corn Hill. 
171 1622  James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs 
172 1622  Weekly News, first English newspaper, published. 
173 1625  Jean-Baptiste Denys invents a method for blood transfusion
174 27  1625  Charles I, King of England to 1649 (he was executed); Charles I married Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France 
175 1627  William Harvey was able to confirm his observation that the blood circulates throughout the body, which he inferred from the structure of the venal valves. The following year, in Exercitatio Anatomica, he published these conclusions as well as a description of the heart as a mechanical pump
176 1629  Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules personally until 1640 
177 1629  Giovanni Branca invents a steam turbine
178 1629  The first horses were imported to the American colonies by the Massachusetts Bay Colony
179 1630  Supposedly, Quadequina, an American Indian, introduced English colonists to popcorn. He had brought some to their first Thanksgiving dinner. 
180 1633  Galileo was forced by the Inquisition in Rome to renounce his theory that the Earth revolved around the Sun.  
181 1636  The Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony established Harvard College (New College), the first college in the Americas. 
182 1637  Supposedly, Cardinal Richelieu 'created' the table knife when he had the points rounded on all knives to be used at his table. Either to stop people picking their teeth with pointy knives or so no one could stab him. 
183 1638  Covenant signed in Scotland, signers bound to preserve Presbyterianism 
184 1641  Catholics in Ireland revolt; some 30,000 Protestants massacred 
185 1641  England begin to import cotton from the Mediterranean and cotton fabric begins to be produced in Manchester 
186 1642  Abel Tasman visits SW Tasmania and names it Van Diemans Land and claims it for Holland 
187 1642  English Civil War (until 1645) begins with Battle of Edgehill 
188 1642  Blaise Pascal invents an adding machine. 
189 12  1642  First Europeans known to reach New Zealand were from Dutch explorer Abel Tasman's ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen. Tasman anchored at the northern end of the South Island but sailed northward to Tonga following a clash with local Maori. 
190 1643  Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer
191 1643  Louis XIV, King of France (the 'Sun King') was born. A gourmet, gourmand and many say glutton. During his reign food began to be served in courses, rather than placed on the table all at once, and forks came into widespread use. 
192 1643  Sir Isaac Newton - one of the most influential scientists in history 
193 17  1648  Scots invade England and are defeated by Cromwell at Battle of Preston 
194 1649  Long Parliament (Rump Parliament) confiscates land
House of Lords abolished
Charles II, meanwhile in exile on Continent, travels to Scotland, signs Covenant, Scots support him 
195 30  1649  Execution of Charles I 
196 19  1649  The Commonwealth of England, in which England is governed as a republic, is established and lasts until 1660 
197 1650  Mass production of glass bottles and cork stoppers 
198 1650  Oliver Cromwell crushes Irish rebellion, then Scots at Battle of Dunbar during the Third English Civil War 
199 1651  Thomas Hobbes, in Leviathan, argued from a mechanistic theory that man is a selfishly individualistic animal at constant war with others. In the state of nature, life is 'nasty, brutish, and short.' 
200 1652  Dutch settlers establish a permanent European colony at the Cape of Good Hope. They bring new crops, plants, animals, and diseases to southern Africa. 


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