"evday","evmonth","evyear","evdetail" "27","5","0735","Death of Bede at Wearmouth, England - the 'Father of English History' and author of Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English People)" "0","0","0802","Egbert, king of Wessex, won allegiance of all English and became the first king of the English." "0","0","0868","The first printed book, a copy of the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, is produced in China using carved wooden blocks to print the text on paper." "0","0","0871","Alfred the Great, ruler of England to 899. Saxon: 4th son of Ethelwulf, defeated Danes, fortified London." "0","0","0900","Vikings begin three centuries of exploration throughout the Arctic region. During their travels they colonize Iceland, settle Greenland, and visit North America." "0","0","0900","Fish are recorded as being farmed in China" "18","3","0978","Ethelred II the Unready, ruler of England to 1016. Saxon: 2nd son of Edgar, half-brother of Edward, married Emma of Normandy. See Emma's file in this family tree" "0","0","1000","Polynesians arrive in New Zealand between 1000 and 1300, beginning human settlement of the world's last sizeable unoccupied landmass." "30","11","1016","Canute the Great (or Cnut or Knut), ruler of England to 1035. Viking: Became King of England by conquest and election. Also King of Denmark, Norway and parts of Sweden. Gave Wessex to Edmund, married Emma of Normandy. See Emma's file in this family tree." "0","0","1023","First paper money printed in China" "12","11","1035","Harald I, Harefoot, ruler of England to 1040. Viking: Natural son of Canute the Great" "17","3","1040","Harthacanute/Hardicanute, ruler of England to 1042. Dane: Son of Canute the Great by Emma of Normandy, also King of Denmark 1035-1042" "8","6","1042","Edward the Confessor, ruler of England 1042-1066. Saxon: Son of Ethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy. Canonized 1161." "0","0","1044","Use of gunpowder recorded in Chinese textbook for war" "0","0","1054","Church East (Orthodox)-West (Catholic) split" "14","10","1066","Battle of Hastings: English vs. Normans. The Normans under William the Conqueror win." "25","12","1066","William the Conqueror, ruler of England to 1087, by conquest. Norman: Second cousin to Edward the Confessor. Defeated Harold II at the battle of Hastings" "0","0","1085","Population of England estimated at about 2 million. World population is estimated at about 300 million." "0","0","1086","William ""the Conqueror"" set up the Domesday Book to find out who owned what land and livestock in England." "0","0","1095","The First Crusade in the Near East was a decisive Crusader victory. Nine major and some lesser Crusades extended from 1095 to 1272." "0","0","1096","Teaching existed at the University of Oxford in some form in 1096 and may go back to the 10th century" "3","8","1100","Henry I Beauclerc, ruler of England to 1135. Norman: Youngest son of William the Conqueror. Seizes crown when brother William II is shot while hunting." "0","0","1117","First recorded use of a magnetic compass (China)" "0","0","1138","Civil war in England, known as the Anarchy" "25","10","1154","Henry II, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Son of Geoffrey Plantaganet by Matilda, daughter of Henry I" "29","12","1170","Henry II's men murder Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury" "6","7","1189","Richard the Lionheart, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Eldest surviving son of Henry II, crusader, and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He is killed fighting Phillip II of France. Richard's brain was buried at the abbey of Charroux in Poitou, his heart was buried at Rouen in Normandy, and the rest of his body was buried at the feet of his father at Fontevraud Abbey in Anjou." "0","0","1200","Functional buttons with buttonholes for fastening or closing clothing appeared first in Germany in the 13th century. They soon became widespread with the rise of snug-fitting garment in 13th- and 14th-century Europe." "0","0","1202","The Hindu-Arabic numbering system (documented from the ninth century in India) introduced to Europe by mathematician Fibonacci." "0","0","1204","England loses mainland Normandy but keeps the Channel Islands - they are called still ""Normandy"" in the description of the English royal domains." "24","2","1209","Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) founds the Franciscan order, which is devoted to a life of poverty." "15","6","1215","Magna Carta signed at Runnymede in the River Thames." "18","10","1216","Henry III of Winchester, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Son of John, acceded aged 9, under regency until 1227." "0","0","1233","First coal is mined in Newcastle, England" "0","0","1250","The gun invented in China." "20","1","1265","First representative English Parliament convened, representing not just a small number of barons, but knights and gentry." "16","11","1272","Edward I Longshanks, ruler of England. Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Son of Henry III." "0","0","1279","Kublai Khan establishes the Yuan Dynasty, unifying all of China from Central Asia to Korea. During this period European travelers first begin to arrive in China, marking the true beginning of 'East-West' relationships" "0","0","1280","Whilst ""reading stones"" made of glass (placed over text) were developed in the 9th century, the modern spectacles were not developed until 1280-1300 in Italy." "0","0","1280"," Mechanical clocks invented." "0","0","1287","First commission of inquiry into levels of smoke in the city of London. Coal burning would be banned (ineffectively) in 1307." "0","0","1290","Edward I expels all Jews from England. This was not legally revoked until 1656." "0","0","1295","Modern glassmaking begins in Venice leading to the development of spectacles, telescopes and microscopes." "7","2","1301","Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as the first English-appointed Prince of Wales. It is always given to the heir-apparent of the English throne. " "7","7","1307","Edward II of Carnarvon, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Eldest surviving son of Edward I. Forced to abdicate by Parliament." "23","6","1314","Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent" "0","0","1326","First mention of a handgun." "1","2","1327","Edward III of Windsor, ruler of England. House of Plantagenet, Angevin Line: Eldest son of Edward II." "0","0","1328","Invention of the sawmill spurs the English shipbuilding industry" "0","0","1337","Philip declares Edward's fiefs forfeit and begins harassing the frontiers of Aquitaine; Edward III, provoked by these attacks on his territories in France, declares himself king of France; 'The Hundred Years' War' ensues" "0","0","1343","Geoffrey Chaucer, first great English poet, author of The Canterbury Tales" "0","0","1346","The Black Death peaked in England but there were several subsequent outbreaks. Reaching from India to Iceland, it reduces population in Asia and Europe by a quarter or a third. It is the last time global population declines." "0","0","1350","English emerges as England's national language about mid 14th century" "0","0","1360","Guy de Chauliac, in Chirurgia Magna, recommended extending fractured limbs with pulleys and weights and recommended replacing lost teeth with bone fastened to the sound teeth with gold wire." "0","0","1368","The Ming Dynasty is established after defeating and expelling the Mongols. The Ming rulers once again isolate China, cutting off contact with outside nations, emphasizing nationalism, and erecting land barriers in a fearful attempt to protect the country from (perceived) invasions." "22","6","1377","Richard II of Bordeaux king of England (at the age of ten). House of Plantaganet, son of Edward the Black Prince." "0","0","1380","First English language Bible (John Wycliffe)" "0","0","1381","Peasants' Revolt in England over attempt to lower wages of farm labourers marks the beginning of the end of serfdom" "0","0","1390","The oldest surviving cookbook in English is The Forme of Cury, from about 1390." "30","9","1399","Henry IV, ruler of England 1399-1413. House of Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line: Son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 4th son of Edward III. Chosen by Parliament as successor to Richard II." "0","0","1400","Sea levels approx 1.9m (6ft) lower than today" "0","0","1400","The first piano, called the Spinet, is invented." "0","0","1400","First golf balls invented." "0","0","1405","Admiral Cheng Ho begins his voyages for Emperor Chu Ti. The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne rules the South Pacific and Indian Ocean until 1433. Did the Chinese map most of the world? See http://www.1421.tv/." "0","0","1411","Charles VI of France gave sole rights to the aging of Roquefort cheese to the village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, and all Roquefort still must be aged in the caves there today." "21","3","1413","Henry V, ruler of England 1413-1422. House of Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line: Eldest son of Henry IV" "0","0","1415","Henry V invades France, and defeats the French at Battle of Agincourt" "0","0","1420","Oil painting invented." "31","8","1422","Henry VI, ruler of England 1422-1461. House of Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line: 9-month old only son of Henry V" "30","5","1431","Joan of Arc burned as a witch at Rouen; Henry VI of England crowned king of France in Paris" "0","0","1437","Johannes Gutenberg became the first in Europe to print with movable type cast in molds." "0","0","1439","In an effort to stop the spread of disease, kissing is banned in England." "0","0","1441","Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish slave trade. For more than four centuries this trade foments exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Africa, Europe, and the Americas." "0","0","1444","Nicholas of Cusa denied that the earth could be at the center of the universe since the universe is unbounded and made several astronomical claims including that the Earth moved around the sun, the stars were other suns, and had inhabited worlds. He also performed the first modern, formal biological experiment from which he concluded that plants absorb nourishment from the air." "1","3","1449","Lorenzo de Medici of Florence. Many in this Italian noble family were patrons of learning and the arts. Lorenzo's great granddaughter, Catherine, is known as the 'mother of French haute cuisine' because when she married the French king Henry II, she brought the finest Italian chefs, and her passion for fine food, with her to France." "0","0","1452","Wars of the Roses, N and W = Lancaster, S and E = York" "0","0","1459","William Caxton invents printing press with movable type, starts printing books in English and Latin" "4","3","1461","Edward IV, ruler of England to 1483 following the Battle of Mortimer's Cross and Battle of Towton. House of York: Great-great-grandson of Edward III, son of Duke of York." "0","0","1467","Silk industry established in Lyon, France, with Italian workers." "30","10","1470","Henry VI restored to throne when Edward IV deposed by Earl of Warwick. " "0","0","1475","Muzzle-loaded rifles invented in Italy and Germany." "0","0","1476","William Caxton sets up printing press in Westminster, England" "0","0","1482","Leonardo da Vinci began his notebooks in pursuit of evidence that the human body is microcosmic, which, by 1510-1511, included dissections of the human body. These notebooks, which circulated in manuscript copies, also contained his thoughts on the impossibility of perpetual motion, dynamics, statics, numerous machines, and other matters." "26","6","1483","Richard III, King of England. House of York. Father Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York" "22","8","1485","Henry VII, ruler of England to 1508. House of Tudor: Son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, whose father had married the widow of Henry V; descended from Edward III through his mother, Mary Beaufort, via John of Gaunt. By marriage with daughter of Edward IV he united Lancaster and York." "0","0","1490","Newsbooks being produced at the rate of 20 per year" "12","10","1492","Christopher Columbus 'discovers' America at 2 am" "1","6","1494","The first written mention of Scotch whisky is in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. A Friar John Cor was the distiller." "0","0","1497","In a two-year voyage, Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope and reaches India" "0","0","1500","The mainspring invented, leading to development of the watch" "0","0","1500","Extinction of the New Zealand moa, a giant flightless bird, after about 500 years of pressure from Maori hunters." "0","0","1500","The first flush toilets appeared in Europe." "0","0","1500","Population of London about 75,000" "0","0","1501","Ocean trade route from Europe to India established" "0","0","1503","The pocket handkerchief appears in Europe" "0","0","1508","Michelangelo paints the vault of the Sistine Chapel 1508-12" "0","0","1509","Spain begins to settle Jamaica (Xamayca, meaning land of wood and water) calling it Santiago = St James." "21","4","1509","Henry VIII. Ruler of England to 1547. House of Tudor: Only surviving son of Henry VII by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV." "10","7","1509","John Calvin 1509-64, influential French theologian of the Protestant Reformation. His seminal work was Institutes of the Christian Religion." "0","0","1510","Pocket watch invented by Peter Henlein." "0","0","1512","Nikolaus Kopernikus, better known as Copernicus, circulated a manuscript, the Commentariolus, which hypothesized that the Earth was a planet and planets revolved in circles and epicircles around the Sun, that the Earth rotated daily, and regressions in planetary orbits were explained by the Earth's motions." "0","0","1516","Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria decreed that beer could only be brewed from barley malt, hops and water. This Rheinheitsgebot (purity law) was probably the world's first consumer protection law." "0","0","1517","Henry VIII forbids reading of Martin Luther's books, doesn't work; by 1527 some scholars attacking Church, call themselves Protestants, are considered heretics" "31","10","1517","The Protestant Reformation begins; Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences, on the church door at Wittenberg, Germany" "0","0","1519","Chocolate as a drink introduced to Europe" "0","0","1519","Avocados were introduced to Europe by Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés" "10","8","1519","Ferdinand Magellan begins his journey to circumnavigate the world with five ships and 270 men. In 1521 Magellan is killed by natives in the Philippines. Eventually in 1522, eighteen of Magellan's crew and one ship return" "0","0","1521","The Diet of Worms begins - the assembly of the Holy Roman Empire at which Martin Luther made his famous appearance." "17","10","1521","Henry VIII receives the title Defender of the Faith from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther" "0","0","1525","Introduction of potato to Europe from South America" "0","0","1529","Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the 'Reformation Parliament' and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome" "0","0","1530","First public lottery - Italy" "0","0","1533","King granted divorce by his new Archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas Cranmer), marries Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth born, declared heir to throne, Mary set aside; monasteries dissolved; Pope excommunicates Henry VIII and Cranmer" "0","0","1534","Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England" "0","0","1535","Publication of first authorised translation of Bible (the Coverdale Bible)" "6","7","1535","Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy" "0","0","1536","Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell, completed in 1539." "0","0","1540","Sir Francis Drake, English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, a renowned pirate, and politician of the Elizabethan era." "0","0","1544","Tomatoes reach Europe. It is unclear where tomatoes may have been first domesticated but the two main possibilities are Peru and Mexico. The wild forms may have originated in either area, but it was the indigenous peoples of Mexico that first cultivated them. In fact, the common name tomato comes from tomatl, the word for this plant in the Nahuatl language of Mexico." "0","0","1544","Henry VIII orders English translation of Bible placed in every parish church; Litany said in English for first time; Pope declares Henry deposed, supported by all Catholic princes, particularly France and Scotland; Henry builds 70-ship navy, arms people, fortifies coast" "0","0","1547","90% of English population estimated to be rural, average Tudor town = about 3,000 people." "28","1","1547","Edward VI, ruler of England to 1553. House of Tudor: Son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, his 3rd queen. Ruled under regents (he was 9 years old when he became king)." "0","0","1549","Introduction of uniform worship in England based on Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer" "0","0","1550","Supposedly, the first café in the world opened in Constantinople." "0","0","1550","Chocolate arrived in Europe." "0","0","1553","Prospero Alpini was born. A physician and botanist, he is said to have introduced coffee and bananas to Europe and to have been the first to artificially fertilize date palms." "0","0","1553","Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England" "10","7","1553","Lady Jane Grey proclaimed queen of England by Duke of Northumberland, her reign lasts nine days. She is executed 12 Feb 1554 at age 17 because of her father's involvement in Wyatt's Rebellion." "0","0","1555","Protestants in England are persecuted and about 300, including Archbishop Cranmer, are burned at the stake" "0","0","1555","Michel de Notredame or Nostradamus published his book of prophecies Centuries Asrtologiques and Excellent er Moult Utile Opuscule a tous necessaire qui desirent avoir connaissance de plusieurs exq uises recettes ('An excellent and most useful little work essential to all who wish to become acquainted with some exquisite recipes')." "17","11","1558","Elizabeth I, ruler of England to 1603. House of Tudor: Daughter of Henry VIII, by Anne Boleyn." "0","0","1559","John Knox returns to Scotland aflame with Calvinism" "0","0","1560","Church of Scotland established - a reformed or presbyterian church" "22","1","1561","Francis Bacon English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, and author, served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. " "0","0","1563","The Thirty-nine Articles, which complete establishment of the Anglican Church" "0","0","1564","William Shakespeare, playwright, poet, actor" "0","0","1565","Lead pencil invented" "0","0","1568","The Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral developed a method to bottle beer." "0","0","1577","Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates the globe, plunders Spanish shipping (to 1580)" "0","0","1582","The new Gregorian calendar was adopted by most Catholic countries. Not adopted in England until 1752, by which time an adjustment of 11 days had to be made - see Dates and Calendars in Support" "0","6","1588","Spanish Armada - 60,000 troops, 30,000 sailors, 77,000 tons of shipping - sails against England, battle lasts one week, decimated by English then by gales" "0","0","1590","Sir John Harington is said to have invented 'The Ajax', a flush toilet, for Elizabeth I of England, who wouldn't use the contraption because it made too much noise. His design was ridiculed in England, but was adopted in France under the name Angrez." "0","0","1590","Zacharias and Hans Janssen combined double convex lenses in a tube, producing the first telescope." "0","0","1594","Irish Nine Years War (or Tyrone's Rebellion) between Gaelic Irish chieftains, notably Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Elizabethan English forces, mainly in Ulster. It ended with the Flight of the Earls and the Plantation of Ulster" "0","0","1596","The work of Dutch cartographer Abraham Ortelius suggests the possibility of continental drift, which will be described more forcefully by Alfred Wegener centuries later." "0","0","1599","College of Physicians founded in Glasgow, Scotland" "0","0","1600","First cafés appear across Europe" "0","0","1600","William Gilbert, in De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth), held that the earth behaves like a giant magnet with its poles near the geographic poles. He coined the word electrica (from the Greek word for amber, elektron), and distinguished electricity from magnetism." "0","0","1600","Population of London about 200,000" "31","12","1600","The British East India Company was incorporated by royal charter. It was created to compete in the East Indian spice trade." "0","0","1601","Pyjamas were introduced in England as lounging attire in the 17th century but soon went out of fashion. About 1870 they reappeared in the Western world as sleeping attire for men" "0","0","1601","English Poor Law Act passed, prompted by three successive poor harvests resulting in demonstrations by starving peasants; codifies previous measures, differentiates between able-bodied and weak unemployed; town councils began to tax citizens to pay for alms" "0","0","1602","Founding of Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally ""United East Indian Company"")" "0","0","1603","The Plague again ravishes London and provincial towns killing 33,000 people" "24","3","1603","At end of Elizabeth I's reign, English population estimated at 4 million, 80% living in rural areas" "24","3","1603","James I ruler of England to 1625. House of Stuart: Son of Mary, Queen of Scots. First to call himself King of Great Britain. This became official with the Act of Union in 1707." "0","0","1604","Robert Cawdrey's A Table Alphabeticall, first English dictionary, is published" "5","11","1605","Gunpowder Plot - Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament and James I" "0","0","1606","Willem Jansz in the Dwyflken lands on the west coast of Cape York peninsula. He is the first authenticated European discoverer of Australia." "0","0","1609","Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, the world's first regular newspaper, is published in Germany" "0","0","1609","Galileo built a telescope with which he discovered the mountains on the moon, that the Milky Way consisted of innumerable stars, the four largest satellites of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and sunspots." "0","0","1611","English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster" "0","0","1611","The King James or Authorised Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible published" "0","0","1612","Deforestation of England for charcoal to make iron already a problem, substitutes sought" "0","0","1615","The first tea is imported to the west" "0","0","1616","Italian philosopher Lucilio Vanini suggests that humans descended from apes. For this heresy, he is burned alive three years later." "26","10","1616","Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog lands on Australia's west coast" "0","0","1617","The first one way streets were established in London. Seventeen one way streets were created to regulate 'disorder and rude behaviour of carmen, draymen, and others using cartes'." "0","0","1620","A group of puritans from Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, later to be known as ""pilgrims"", land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the Mayflower" "0","0","1620","The first corn (maize) was discovered by some Pilgrims led by Myles Standish, while exploring the area near Provincetown, Massachusetts. They named the spot Corn Hill." "0","0","1622","James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs" "0","0","1622","Weekly News, first English newspaper, published." "0","0","1625","Jean-Baptiste Denys invents a method for blood transfusion." "27","3","1625","Charles I, King of England to 1649 (he was executed); Charles I married Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France" "0","0","1627","William Harvey was able to confirm his observation that the blood circulates throughout the body, which he inferred from the structure of the venal valves. The following year, in Exercitatio Anatomica, he published these conclusions as well as a description of the heart as a mechanical pump." "0","0","1629","Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules personally until 1640" "0","0","1629","Giovanni Branca invents a steam turbine." "0","0","1629","The first horses were imported to the American colonies by the Massachusetts Bay Colony." "0","0","1630","Supposedly, Quadequina, an American Indian, introduced English colonists to popcorn. He had brought some to their first Thanksgiving dinner." "0","0","1633","Galileo was forced by the Inquisition in Rome to renounce his theory that the Earth revolved around the Sun. " "0","0","1636","The Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony established Harvard College (New College), the first college in the Americas." "0","0","1637","Supposedly, Cardinal Richelieu 'created' the table knife when he had the points rounded on all knives to be used at his table. Either to stop people picking their teeth with pointy knives or so no one could stab him." "0","0","1638","Covenant signed in Scotland, signers bound to preserve Presbyterianism" "0","0","1641","Catholics in Ireland revolt; some 30,000 Protestants massacred" "0","0","1641","England begin to import cotton from the Mediterranean and cotton fabric begins to be produced in Manchester" "0","0","1642","Abel Tasman visits SW Tasmania and names it Van Diemans Land and claims it for Holland" "0","0","1642","English Civil War (until 1645) begins with Battle of Edgehill" "0","0","1642","Blaise Pascal invents an adding machine." "0","12","1642","First Europeans known to reach New Zealand were from Dutch explorer Abel Tasman's ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen. Tasman anchored at the northern end of the South Island but sailed northward to Tonga following a clash with local Maori." "0","0","1643","Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer." "0","0","1643","Louis XIV, King of France (the 'Sun King') was born. A gourmet, gourmand and many say glutton. During his reign food began to be served in courses, rather than placed on the table all at once, and forks came into widespread use." "4","1","1643","Sir Isaac Newton - one of the most influential scientists in history" "17","8","1648","Scots invade England and are defeated by Cromwell at Battle of Preston" "0","0","1649","Long Parliament (Rump Parliament) confiscates land
House of Lords abolished
Charles II, meanwhile in exile on Continent, travels to Scotland, signs Covenant, Scots support him" "30","1","1649","Execution of Charles I" "19","5","1649","The Commonwealth of England, in which England is governed as a republic, is established and lasts until 1660" "0","0","1650","Mass production of glass bottles and cork stoppers" "0","0","1650","Oliver Cromwell crushes Irish rebellion, then Scots at Battle of Dunbar during the Third English Civil War" "0","0","1651","Thomas Hobbes, in Leviathan, argued from a mechanistic theory that man is a selfishly individualistic animal at constant war with others. In the state of nature, life is 'nasty, brutish, and short.'" "0","0","1652","Dutch settlers establish a permanent European colony at the Cape of Good Hope. They bring new crops, plants, animals, and diseases to southern Africa." "16","12","1653","Oliver Cromwell dissolves the 'Rump Parliament' and becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland 1653-58" "0","0","1654","James Ussher, Protestant archbishop of Armagh, determined by a close reading of scriptural genealogies that the events described on the first page of the Book of Genesis occurred in 4004 B.C." "0","5","1655","British forces in the form of a joint expedition by Admiral Sir William Penn (father of the founder of Pennsylvania), and General Robert Venables seized Jamaica from Spain." "0","0","1656","Christiaan Huygens built the first pendulum-regulated clock. Two years later, Huygens, in Horologium, claimed that his clock could establish longitude at sea which was not then possible and had led to many maritime disasters." "0","0","1657","Stockings are manufactured in France." "3","9","1658","Richard Cromwell, 2nd Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. Commonwealth & Proctorate: 3rd son of Oliver Cromwell." "0","0","1659","First cheque drawn (London, England) " "29","5","1660","Charles II, ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1685. House of Stuart (restored): Eldest son of Charles I, died without issue. King of Scotland from 30 Jan 1649." "0","0","1662","Robert Boyle, using a vacuum pump of his own invention, determined that the volume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional" "0","0","1662","John Graunt, in Observations upon the Bills of Mortality, using London population data, noted that life expectancy is 27 years, with nearly two thirds dying before 16 years." "0","0","1662","Act of Uniformity required the use of all the rites and ceremonies in the Book of Common Prayer in Church of England services" "0","0","1665","Great Plague kills one fifth London's population" "0","0","1666","First European printed banknote issued" "2","9","1666","The Great Fire of London began in the shop of the King's baker. After burning for four days, more than 13,000 buildings had been destroyed." "0","0","1667","The fork gains popularity - previously knives and spoons only" "0","0","1670","The Treaty of Madrid established English possession of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands" "0","0","1674","Anton van Leeuwenhoek reported his discovery of protozoa, using his newly-devised microscope" "0","0","1678","John Bunyan (1628-1688) publishes Pilgrim's Progress" "0","0","1679","Act of Habeas Corpus passed, forbidding imprisonment without trial; Parliament's Bill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliament dismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories" "0","0","1679","Denis Papin, a French physicist invented the pressure cooker, which he called Papin's Digester." "6","2","1685","James II, ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1688. House of Stuart (restored): 2nd son of Charles I. Deposed 1688, interregnum Dec 11, 1688, to Feb 13, 1689. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland." "31","3","1685","Johann Sebastian Bach" "0","10","1685","Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV. Some 80,000 French Huguenot manufacturers and workmen fled to the British Isles, bring such industries as paper making, silk makers, tanners, furniture making, silver smithing. Note that our earliest known Royes ancestor was a silk weaver." "0","0","1687","Isaac Newton publishes Principia Mathematica" "0","0","1688","England's 'Glorious Revolution'; William III of Orange is invited to save England from Roman Catholicism, lands in England, James II flees to France" "0","0","1689","English Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; Act of Toleration grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg, England, and the Netherlands" "13","2","1689","William III and Mary II, rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1702. House of Stuart (restored): Son of William, Prince of Orange, by Mary, daughter of Charles I. Mary eldest daughter of James II. She died 1694." "0","0","1690","Philosopher John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding" "12","7","1690","Battle of the Boyne: James II defeated, flees into exile" "0","0","1692","Kingston established after the Jamaican capital Port Royal was destroyed in an earthquake." "0","0","1694","Foundation of the Bank of England" "28","12","1694","Death of Queen Mary; she and King William were joint monarchs of England, Scotland and Ireland. " "0","0","1700","Population of England and Wales estimated at 5.5 million" "0","0","1700","Population of English colonies in America, 200,000" "0","0","1701","The Act of Settlement settles the English royal succession on the Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover. King William forms a grand alliance between England, Holland and Austria to prevent the union of the Spanish and French crowns. The War of the Spanish Succession breaks out in Europe over the vacant throne" "16","9","1701","Death of James II King of England, Scotland and Ireland in exile, King Louis of France recognises James's son as King James III" "8","3","1702","Queen Anne, ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1707, then, after the Act of Union, of Great Britain and Ireland until 1714. House of Stuart (restored): 2nd daughter of James II. Died with no living heirs." "28","6","1703","John Wesley, born Epworth, Lincolnshire, England, with brother Charles is founder of the Methodist movement. By 1784, 356 Methodist chapels built in places lacking church." "1","5","1707","The Act of Union unites the kingdoms of England and Scotland and transfers the seat of Scottish Government to London." "11","3","1708","Queen Anne vetoes a parliamentary bill to recognise the Scottish militia. This is the last time a bill is vetoed by the sovereign" "0","0","1709","Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit constructed an alcohol thermometer" "0","0","1710","The hoop skirt becomes fashionable" "0","0","1714","During period to 1742 England sees no big increases from population of about 5.5 million but the distribution changes: East Anglia loses; West Country, South and East Midlands, East Riding and North (except Tyneside) fairly static; West Riding and South Lancashire increase; West Midlands, Surrey and Middlesex grow rapidly with London (London 500,000, Bristol 50,000; Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield, Leeds, Halifax, Birmingham and Coventry, no longer sprawling villages, but still under 50,000); cause is immigration from cities and (in NW) from Ireland" "1","8","1714","George I, ruler of England to 1727. First Hanoverian to be king: Son of Elector of Hanover, by Sophia, grand-daughter of James I. Proclaimed King under Act of Settlement." "0","0","1717","Edmond Halley invents the diving bell." "0","0","1720","Dr Richard Mead publishes Short Discourse Concerning Pestilential Contagion, advocates quarantine, proposes establishment of government Council of Health; inoculation against smallpox introduced from Constantinople by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu" "0","0","1720","Hospitals founded in London: Guy's, St. George's, London & Middlesex in period to 1745" "4","4","1721","Sir Robert Walpole returns to government as First Lord of the Treasury. He remains in office until 1742 and effectively becomes Britain's first Prime Minister" "16","7","1723","Sir Joshua Reynolds, arguably finest English landscape and portrait painter, career 1750-1780" "0","0","1724","Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the first mercury thermometer." "0","0","1726","Jonathan Swift publishes his Gulliver's Travels" "0","0","1727","British provincial newspapers have increased from 8 in 1700 to 25 in 1727" "0","1","1727","The Gentleman's Magazine, first modern magazine, published" "11","6","1727","George II, ruler of England to 1760. House of Hanover: Only son of George I, married Caroline of Ansbach." "0","0","1730","Famine strikes Ireland" "0","0","1730","In Great Britain in early part of 1700s, death rate had surpassed birth rate; begins to reverse; after 1780 death-rate plummets - due to replacement of gin-drinking with beer-drinking after taxes increased and retail sales curtailed on former in 1750; medical care improves, as does agriculture, more food available" "0","0","1736","John Harrison finished building and tested at sea what proved to be the first accurate chronometer for timing longitude" "0","0","1738"," John and Charles Wesley start the Methodist movement in Britain" "0","0","1740","Industrial revolution leads to large growth of cities" "0","0","1740","Publication of the first novel, Samuel Richardson's Pamela" "0","0","1741","Further famine in Ireland, population about 4 million" "0","0","1742","The Compleat Housewife, or Accomplish'd Gentlewoman's Companion is the first cookbook published in Williamsburg, British North America" "27","6","1743","Battle of Dettingen - King George II is victorious. It was the last time that a British monarch, George II, personally led his troops into battle." "0","0","1744","King George's War in North America: French Colonies vs Great Britain 1744-1748." "21","9","1745","Jacobite Rebellion led by 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'. There is a Scottish victory at the Battle of Prestonpans. Prince Charles Edward (Bonnie Prince Charlie), son of James III, lands in Western Highlands of Scotland. Scots reach Derby; Charles_Edward_Stuart is inexplicably persuaded to turn back, loses initiative." "16","4","1746","Battle of Culloden (Invernesshire), Scots defeated by Cumberland; fails to capture Charles who, after five months, escapes to France" "0","0","1750","Population of England and Wales estimated at 6.5 million" "0","0","1750","English countryside takes on today's familiar appearance as accelerated enclosure produces small fields surrounded by hedges, fences and walls" "0","0","1751","Benjamin Franklin published Experiments and Observations on Electricity after several years of experiments done with several friends. In this book Franklin suggested an experiment to prove that lightning is a large-scale electrical discharge, a task which later he took upon himself, using a kite. This led to the invention of the lightning rod." "14","9","1752","Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in Britain. See also article in Support section of this site" "0","0","1753","British Parliament passes the Jewish Naturalization Bill" "25","10","1760","George III, ruler of England to 1820. House of Hanover: Grandson of George II, married Charlotte of Mecklenburg." "0","0","1761","Robert Hinchliffe produced the first pair of modern-day scissors made of hardened and polished cast steel. [The earliest scissors were invented about 1500 B.C.] Hinchcliffe lived in Cheney Square, London and was reputed to be the first person who put out a signboard proclaiming himself ""fine scissor manufacturer""." "0","0","1761","Various British municipalities secure Private Acts by which money can be raised ('rates') to pay for public improvements, such as paving and lighting in period to 1765" "0","0","1762","John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 'created' the sandwich. He was said to have been fond of gambling and, during a 24 hour gambling streak, he instructed a cook to prepare his food in such a way that it would not interfere with his game. The cook presented him with sliced meat between two pieces of toast." "0","0","1768","James Cook's first voyage to explore the Pacific Ocean" "0","0","1769","James Watt patented a new type of steam engine with a separate condensing chamber and an air pump to bring steam into the chamber and equipped it with a simple 'governor' for safety: if the engine started to go too fast, the power would be automatically cut back. He coined the term horsepower and later loaned his name to the unit of power, or work done per unit of time" "19","4","1770","James Cook maps the east coast of Australia. From Possession Island at the northern tip of the east coast he claims the land for Britain." "0","0","1771","The Encyclopedia Britannica is first published" "0","0","1772","Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Lord Mansfield, makes slavery illegal" "0","0","1773","The world's first cast-iron bridge is constructed over the River Severn at Coalbrookedale, England" "16","12","1773","American colonists protest at the East India Company's monopoly over tea exports to the colonies, at the so-called Boston Tea Party" "19","4","1775","American War of Independence, begins when colonists fight British troops at Lexington." "0","0","1776","Adam Smith, in The Wealth of Nations, advanced the idea that businesses survive through successful trading in pursuit of their self-interest, and that the resulting equilibrium was not by design." "0","0","1776","David Bushnell invents a submarine." "0","0","1776","Edward Gibbon authors Decline and Fall of Roman Empire in period to 1788" "4","7","1776","The American Congress passes their Declaration of Independence from Britain." "0","0","1783","The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques-Etienne, invented the first practical hot air balloon." "0","0","1783","Benjamin Hanks patents the self-winding clock." "19","12","1783","William Pitt the Younger, British Prime Minister. He simplifies taxes and customs duties, tries to pacify Ireland, abolish slave-trading and laws preventing Catholics holding office; returns Florida and Minorca to Spain and Senegal to France; Act of Renunciation gives Ireland rights in legislation and judication" "0","0","1784","First edition of The Times (London) newspaper" "0","0","1784","Introduction of mail coach in Britain" "0","0","1785","Benjamin Franklin develops bifocal eyeglasses." "0","0","1785","Glasgow triples in size, has 54 cotton mills in full work during period to 1818" "0","0","1785","Oliver Evans of Newport, Delaware invented the automatic flour-milling machinery that revolutionized the industry. " "0","0","1787","First iron boat launched" "0","0","1788","Time to travel from London to Manchester reduced from 4.5 days to 28 hours" "23","1","1788","Captain Arthur Philip is first Governor of the colony of New South Wales" "26","1","1788","The First Fleet establishes the colony of New South Wales at Sydney Cove after first landing at Botany Bay eight days earlier. Between 1788 and 1850 the British sent over 162,000 convicts to Australia in 806 ships." "3","2","1788","First Christian service in Australia at Sydney Cove" "0","0","1789","In Great Britain the French Revolution sounded the death knoll toward elaborate and affected dress and hairdos. The powdered wig and towering women's hair styles passed from fashion. Simpler, more practical clothes emerged. Boys wore the skeleton suit, often with a comfortable open collar, and by the end of the century with plebian long trousers." "30","4","1789","George Washington first president of the United States 1789-1797." "14","7","1789","French Revolution, Louis XVI, many aristocrats and others executed, France declares war on European monarchies" "0","0","1790","During the 1790s, New Zealand waters were visited by British, French, and American whaling and trading ships. Their crews traded European goods, including guns and metal tools, for Maori food, water, wood, flax and sex." "0","0","1791","John Barber invents the gas turbine." "0","0","1792","The first ambulance." "0","0","1792","Alessandro Volta discovered he could arrange metals in a series in such a way that chemical energy is converted into electrical energy; that is, two dissimilar metals are submerged in an electrolyte and connected by an circuit and thereby exchange electrons." "0","0","1792","Coal gas is used for lighting in Britain for the first time. " "0","0","1792","Mary Wollstonecraft publishes her Vindication of the Rights of Women" "0","0","1792","Edmund Cartwright invents steam-powered weaving loom" "0","0","1793","Britain becomes foremost world trader during period to 1815" "0","0","1793","Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin which efficiently separates cotton fibers from the seeds, allowing one person to do a job once done by 50 people. This profoundly changes the economics of raising cotton, revitalizing slavery in the American South." "0","0","1794","In the colony of New South Wales, the Hawkesbury is settled at what is now known as Pitt Town, and Green Hills (Windsor) is established. John Macarthur establishes Elizabeth Farm in the Parramatta area." "0","0","1794","Metric system introduced in France" "0","0","1795","Francois Appert invents the preserving jar for food." "11","9","1795","Captain John Hunter appointed Governor to the colony of New South Wales (until 1800) with instructions to restore discipline to the colony" "0","0","1796","Edward Jenner investigated the folk tale that milk maids were immune to small pox, the virus variola major, and in a brief series of experiments confirmed that exposure to cow pox, the virus vaccinia, rendered immunity" "0","0","1796","French General Napoleon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte) invades Italy, drives Austrian armies out of Lombardy and defeats the army of the Papal States." "0","0","1797","First merino sheep imported into Australia by John Macarthur, the Rev. Samuel Marsden and others" "4","3","1797","John Adams president of the USA 1797-1801." "0","0","1798","Near-civil war between Protestants and Catholics in Ireland, erupts in 1798, takes nearly a year to suppress" "0","0","1798","Great Britain introduces an income tax of ten percent on incomes over £200." "0","0","1798","Wordsworth and Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads" "0","0","1798","The first soft drink is invented." "0","0","1799","A six year Black War in the Hawkesbury and Parramatta districts of the colony of New South Wales" "0","0","1799","Trade Unions are suppressed in Great Britain." "0","0","1799","Alessandro Volta develops the battery." "11","11","1799","Napoleon is appointed First Consul in France" "0","0","1800","Central heating for large buildings developed" "0","0","1800","Act of Union 1800 (sometimes cited as 1801) unites Parliaments of England and Ireland and the ""United Kingdom"" (UK) is born" "0","0","1800","English social reformer Robert Owen buys mills at New Lanark, and manages them on higher principles and focus and less on commercial principles" "0","0","1800","Over a ten year period, 30 acres of new docks are built in London, which becomes the greatest port in the world" "0","0","1800","Over the coming century, approx. 1 million people emigrate from Britain. 162,000 are prisoners transported to Australia (60,000 convicts had been transported to the American colonies prior to the War of Independence)" "28","9","1800","Captain Philip Gidley King, RN, third Governor of New South Wales" "0","0","1801","Governor King (NSW colony) introduced the 'ticket of leave' system for convicts. This early form of parole enabled convicts to work anywhere until they had served their term. " "0","0","1801","The first British Census is undertaken
Population of England and Wales now 10 million, Great Britain estimated at 11 million, biggest increases in North and West Midlands,
London now 1 million plus,
Manchester 137,201,
Glasgow and Edinburgh 100,000 plus,
England has 8 towns larger than 50,000, 6 of them in the North" "4","3","1801","Thomas Jefferson 3rd President 1801-1809." "0","0","1802","Australia emerges as a major whaling base" "0","0","1803","Van Diemens Land (later known as Tasmania) settled at Risdon Cove on the Derwent River" "0","0","1803","Matthew Flinders completes his circumnavigation of the Australian continent and suggests the name 'Australia'" "18","5","1803","Napoleonic Wars. Britain declares war on France." "0","0","1804","John Dalton establishes atomic theory" "0","0","1804","Richard Trevithick, an English mining engineer, developed the first steam-powered locomotive" "18","5","1804","Napoleon I, Emperor of France" "21","10","1805","Battle of Trafalgar, Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson trounces French and Spanish fleets for Britain, is mortally wounded" "0","0","1806","Cape Colony, South Africa, passes under British control" "13","8","1806","William Bligh appointed fourth Governor of New South Wales with a brief to clean up the corrupt rum trade of the NSW Corps." "0","0","1807","First bale of wool sent from Australia to England. First commercial shipment of wool will be transported 6 Jul 1813 by John and Elizabeth Macarthur. " "0","0","1807","New Zealand Musket Wars were a series of battles fought between various tribal groups of Maori in the early 1800s, primarily on the North Island, occasioned by the acquisition of muskets in Maori trading with Europeans." "0","0","1809","Sir Humphry Davy invents the first electric light - the first arc lamp" "4","3","1809","James Madison 4th President of the USA" "1","1","1810","Major General Lachlan Macquarie appointed Governor of New South Wales - The New South Wales Corps was disbanded and the leaders of the 'Rum Rebellion' sent to England" "23","6","1810","Governor Macquarie opened Australia's first post office in Sydney's Circular Quay." "0","0","1811","Ned Ludd leads rioters who smash machinery, burn factories, followers known as Luddites" "0","0","1812","Napoleon attacks Russia, defeated" "7","2","1812","Charles John Huffam Dickens, prolific and popular author" "11","5","1812","Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated in the House of Commons by a disgruntled bankrupt - the only assassination of a British Prime Minister" "18","6","1812","The War of 1812 (in Britain, the American War of 1812, to distinguish from the war with Napoleon) was fought between the United States of America, on one side, and on the other side the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its colonies, especially Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), Nova Scotia, and Bermuda. 1812-1815" "0","0","1813","The Blue Mountains (west of Sydney) crossed by Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson" "0","0","1813","Canned food was invented for the Royal Navy by Peter Durand. The cans were made of solid iron and usually weighed more than the food inside them" "0","0","1813","2,300 power looms in use in Britain, by 1833 - 100,000" "28","1","1813","Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice is published" "6","7","1813","First commercial shipment of wool from Australia to England by John and Elizabeth Macarthur." "0","0","1814","Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a photograph" "0","0","1814","Napoleon abdicates, exiled to Isle of Elba" "0","0","1814","George Stephenson designs a steam locomotive" "0","0","1815","UK trade:
(1) England has 2,600 miles (4,184 km) of canals, Scotland and Ireland 500 (805);
(2) China clippers take 109 days to sail 15,000 miles (24,000 km) from Canton to English Channel;
(3) imports 82 million pounds (37,000 metric tonnes) of raw cotton, by 1860 1,000 million pounds (450000);
(4) coal output 16 million tons (30 miillion by 1835, 50 million by 1848)" "0","0","1815","Britain's population estimated at 13 million" "0","0","1815","European settlement in New Zealand increased through the early decades of the nineteenth century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North. The first full-blooded European infant in the territory, Thomas King, was born in 1815 in the Bay of Islands. Many Europeans bought land from Maori, but misunderstanding and different concepts of land ownership led to conflict and bitterness." "0","3","1815","Napoleon escapes Elba, leads French in war once more" "9","6","1815","Peace is established in Europe at the Congress of Vienna" "18","6","1815","Duke of Wellington trounces the French at Waterloo with timely help of Blucher (Prussia)" "4","3","1817","James Monroe 5th president of the USA (the fourth from Virginia)" "0","0","1818","Mary Shelley at age 19 publishes her Frankenstein" "0","0","1819","René Laennec invents the stethoscope" "0","0","1820","Trousers became standard dress for men in Europe" "0","0","1820","World population reaches one billion." "0","0","1820","British Government finances scheme to send out 6,000 settlers to Cape in South Africa" "29","1","1820","George IV, becomes ruler of England to 1830. House of Hanover: Eldest son of George III, had been Prince Regent from Feb 1811 due to his father's insanity. Queen Caroline is excluded from the coronation - they had formally separated after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte, in 1796, and remained separated for the rest of their lives" "0","0","1821","Michael Faraday invents electric motor and generator" "1","12","1821","Sir Thomas Brisbane appointed Governor of New South Wales until 1825" "0","0","1822","Famine in Ireland prompts migration to US and Canada" "0","0","1823","A Legislative Council was established to advise the Governor of New South Wales - members were appointed" "0","0","1824","Professor Michael Faraday invents the first toy balloon" "0","0","1824","Englishman Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement, the modern building material" "0","0","1824","A penal colony was established at Moreton Bay, first at Redcliffe, then in 1825 the colony was moved 28 km south to what is now the location of Brisbane. Free settlers were permitted from 1842" "0","0","1825","The world's first railway service, the Stockton and Darlington Railway opens" "0","0","1825","British Trade Unions are legalized" "0","0","1825","Settlement of Canada, Australia and New Zealand begins in earnest over the next 25 years" "4","3","1825","John Quincy Adams 6th President of the USA" "14","6","1825","Van Diemans Land (later to be named Tasmania) becomes a separate colony from NSW" "19","12","1825","Lieutenant General Ralph Darling appointed Governor of New South Wales to 1831" "0","0","1826","Joseph Nicephore Niepce makes the earliest known photograph, View from a Window at Gras, via a heliograph process on a metal plate" "0","0","1827","John Walker invents the friction match" "0","0","1827","Charles Wheatstone invents the microphone" "0","0","1827","Alan Cunningham explored the Darling Downs (west of Brisbane) opening up a large area of pastoral country" "22","1","1828","The Duke of Wellington, British Prime Minister" "0","0","1829","Swan River Colony (Western Australia) established by Captain James Stirling" "0","0","1829","British Parliament passes the Catholic Relief Act, ending most restrictions on Catholic Civil Rights. They are allowed to own property and run for public office, including parliament" "0","0","1829","Sir Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police Force, constables become known as bobbies" "0","0","1829","Louis Braille invents braille printing" "4","3","1829","Andrew Jackson 7th President of the USA" "0","0","1830","First major cholera epidemic in Europe lasts two years. Deaths: London 6,536; France 100,000 (Paris 20,000). It reached North America by 1834" "0","0","1830","Free (i.e. not convicts or military) migrants to Australia = 1500, by 1841 = 32,000" "26","6","1830","William IV, ruler of England to 1837. House of Hanover: 3rd son of George III, married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen" "0","0","1831","Michael Faraday, in the first in a series of Experimental Researches in Electricity, discovered the means of producing electricity from magnetism, i.e., electromagnetic induction, the generation of an electric field by a changing magnetic field. This is the principle of the dynamo." "0","0","1831","Population of England and Wales now 14 million" "0","12","1831","The Baptist War also known as the Christmas Uprising and the Great Jamaican Slave Revolt of 1831-32, was a 10 day rebellion that mobilized as many as 60,000 of Jamaica's 300,000 slave population led by 'native' Baptist preacher, Samuel Sharpe." "3","12","1831","Major General Sir Richard Bourke appointed Governor of New South Wales to 1837" "0","0","1832","The first or Great Reform Act (UK) is passed. This climax of a period of political reform extends the vote to a further 500,000 people and redistributes Parliamentary seats on a more equitable basis" "0","0","1832","Commission created to look into inhumanity of transporting prisoners to the colony of New South Wales, another in 1837, transportation finally stops in 1840" "0","0","1832","Age of Coal and Iron or The Railway Age threatens British canals and stage coaches." "0","0","1833","Abolition of Slavery throughout the British Empire" "0","0","1834","Colony of Port Phillip (to become the state of Victoria, Australia) established" "0","0","1835","Solymon Merrick patents the wrench" "0","0","1836","English text book reader first published" "0","0","1836","Boers leave British South Africa in search of independence on Great Trek (to 1840)" "0","0","1837","A total of nine ships with 636 people arrive in South Australia from London to establish a free colony based on Edward Gibbon Wakefield's theories" "0","2","1837","Charles Dickens publishes Oliver Twist in serial form, drawing attention to Britain's poor." "4","3","1837","Martin van Buren 8th President of the USA" "20","6","1837","Victoria, British Queen at age 16. House of Hanover: Daughter of Edward, 4th son of George III" "0","7","1837","British births, deaths and marriages must be registered by law" "0","0","1838","Settlement established at Port Essington (near present day Darwin NT)" "0","0","1839","William Henry Fox Talbot produces photographs from negatives" "0","0","1839","Kirkpatrick Macmillan invents the pedal-driven bicycle." "0","0","1839","Charles Goodyear invents rubber vulcanization" "0","0","1840","Tight-laced corsets, stiff petticoats fashionable" "0","0","1840","Convicts are still sent to Tasmania at the rate of about 4,000 per year" "6","2","1840","Treaty of Waitangi made New Zealand a British colony and guaranteed rights for Maoris" "10","2","1840"," Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha." "0","5","1840","English schoolmaster Rowland Hill's famous pamphlet, Post Office Reform: its Importance and Practicability, was privately circulated in 1837. He proposed a one-penny cost to make the postal service available to everyone, together with the notion of a postage stamp. Both measures were introduced in 1840 and led to a 120% increase in internal mail." "0","0","1841","The first British census to record the names of the populace - not just statistics - is undertaken. A boon for genealogists!" "0","0","1841","Samuel Slocum patents the stapler." "4","3","1841","William Henry Harrison 9th President of the USA. He succumbed to pneumonia exactly one month later." "4","4","1841","John Tyler 10th President of the USA. He is the first Vice President to succeed to the presidency due to death of a President." "30","8","1841","Sir Robert Peel becomes British Prime Minister for the second time" "0","0","1842","First Christmas card" "0","0","1842","Hong Kong annexed by UK. Returned to China 150 years later (1997)" "0","0","1843","Edward Loysel de Santais invents the Espresso machine that impressed visitors to the Paris Exposition of 1855 by producing ""two thousand cups of coffee an hour.""" "0","0","1843","Alexander Bain (1818-1903) invented an early fax machine" "19","12","1843","Charles John Huffam Dickens publishes A Christmas Carol" "0","0","1844","Ludwig Leichhardt explores from the Darling Downs, west of Brisbane, to the Gulf of Carpentaria to Port Essington (Darwin)" "0","0","1844","Samuel Finley Breese Morse demonstrates a telegraph, using a code of his own invention" "0","0","1844","British Ten Hours Bill limited working hours for women and youths in textile business to 10 hours/day, passes thanks to Lord Shaftesbury's efforts during period to 1847" "0","0","1845","Irish Potato Famine kills more than a million people (out of 8 million) in two years" "0","0","1845","Robert William Thomson patents the first vulcanised rubber pneumatic tyre." "4","3","1845","James Polk 11th President of the USA" "0","0","1846","Dr William Morton, a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use anaesthesia for tooth extraction." "0","10","1846","Charles John Huffam Dickens publishes Dombey and Son in monthly parts. See Gillian West's article 'Huffam and Son' that looks at possible parallels with the Huffams and Royes" "0","0","1847","Levi Strauss produces denim jeans" "0","0","1847","Jean Pierre Flourens discovered the anaesthetic properties of chloroform" "0","0","1847","Hungarian Ignaz Semmelweis invents antiseptics." "0","0","1848","Karl Marx publishes The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital" "0","0","1848","5000 miles (8047 km) of railway tracks now laid in the UK, 2000 of which were equipped with telegraph wires; Britain now produces about half of world's pig iron, trebles output within 30 years" "0","0","1849","Walter Hunt invents the safety pin." "4","3","1849","Zachary Taylor 12th President of the USA. Zachary Taylor died while in office." "0","5","1849","Charles Dickens produced David Copperfield in serial form" "0","0","1850","Great Britain becomes the first sizeable country in the world in which more than half of the population lives in cities." "0","0","1850","The mid-nineteenth century saw novels published by Dickens, Dumas, Flaubert, Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy" "9","7","1850","Millard Fillmore 13th President of the USA. Vice President under Zachary Taylor, he was sworn in as President after Taylor's death." "0","0","1851","Patent for sewing machine issued to Isaac Singer" "0","0","1851","British Census shows 10,736,000 females, 8,155,000 of whom were aged 10 and older,
largest occupational groups:
  905,000 domestic service workers
  145,000 washerwomen
  55,000 charwomen (cleaners)
  272,000 in cotton industry
  113,000 in woolen industry
  140,000 in lace, hosiery and linen" "0","0","1851","David Livingstone's African explorations" "0","0","1851","Population of Australia rises from 405,000 in 1851 to 1,168,000 in 1861" "1","7","1851","Victoria becomes a separate colony from New South Wales" "0","9","1851","Victorian gold rush brings 19,000 immigrants through Melbourne in one month - for the whole year 94,664. Melbourne's population goes from 29,000 (1851) to 123,000 (1854)." "0","10","1851","Paul Julius Reuter opens London ""Submarine Telegraph"" office just before the opening of the cable in November, and agreed to a contract with the London Stock Exchange to provide stock prices from the continental exchanges in return for access to the London prices, which he supplied to Paris brokers. See also Reuters" "11","10","1852","Australia's first university (Sydney) commences classes" "0","0","1853","Potato crisps invented by a cook named George Crum." "0","0","1853","During the Crimean War Florence Nightingale first recommended the regimen of cleanliness which dramatically reduced the death rate in hospitals" "0","0","1853","Crimean War begins, as Britain and France attempt to defend European interests in the Middle East against Russia" "4","3","1853","Franklin Pierce 14th President of the USA." "0","0","1854","Australia: The Eureka Rebellion by Victorian gold diggers suppressed" "0","0","1854","John Tyndall demonstrates the principles of fibre optics." "0","0","1855","The screwdriver come into popular use" "0","0","1855","Australia - The first Victorian Parliament of two houses - Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council. (An appointed Legislative Council had been created in 1840.)" "0","0","1856","Van Dieman's Land renamed Tasmania " "0","0","1856","World's first introduction of the secret electoral ballot in Australia. (This system is also known as the ""Australian ballot"")" "0","0","1856","Parliament of New South Wales consisting of two houses (Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council) established. (An appointed Legislative Council had been established in 1825.)" "0","0","1856","British Marriage and Divorce Act permits any man to divorce his wife on grounds of adultery, permits a woman the same but has also to show cruelty or desertion" "0","0","1856","Louis Pasteur develops pasteurisation" "0","0","1856","Population of New Zealand rises from less than 60,000 to 350,000 in the period to 1878" "29","1","1856","The Victoria Cross is instituted for military bravery" "4","3","1857","James Buchanan 15th President of the USA." "0","0","1858","Australian Rules football first played" "0","0","1858","Charles Moncky invents the adjustable ""monkey"" wrench" "0","0","1858","Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir develops the first internal combustion engine." "0","0","1859","Thomas Austin introduces English rabbits to Australia. In the absence of disease and predators, the rabbit population grows to half a billion within a century." "0","0","1859","John Stuart Mill publishes On Liberty" "0","0","1859","Charles Dickens produces A Tale of Two Cities set in London and Paris during the French Revolution" "0","0","1859","Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life asserts that all life had a common ancestor and that the origin of species was by natural selection." "6","6","1859","Queensland established as a separate colony from New South Wales" "0","0","1860","Joseph Wilson Swan invented the light bulb, an incandescent lamp using a carbon filament." "1","12","1860","Charles Dickens produces Great Expectations in a weekly series" "0","0","1861","Australia: First Melbourne Cup" "0","0","1861","John Stuart Mill publishes Utilitarianism as a series of three articles in Fraser's Magazine. Published as a book in 1861" "0","0","1861","Women in South Australia first given vote - first place in the world to do so?" "0","0","1861","Elisha Otis patents safety brakes for lifts (or elevators)." "0","0","1861","Linus Yale invents the Yale pin tumbler lock." "4","3","1861","Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the USA. He is the first US President to be assassinated." "12","4","1861","American Civil War was a major war between the United States (the ""Union"") and eleven Southern states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by Confederate President Jefferson Davis." "0","0","1862","Louis Pasteur published the germ theory: infection is caused by self-replicating microorganisms, and that attenuated viral cultures granted immunity. These beneficent antigens he named vaccines in honor of Edward Jenner and his vaccinia virus" "0","0","1863","Queensland, Australia, starts large-scale forced recruitment of kanakas (Pacific Islanders) to work in sugar plantations" "0","0","1863","The Salvation Army is founded in London by former Methodist preacher William and Catherine Booth as The Christian Mission in London." "0","0","1863","First underground railway opens in London" "0","0","1865","Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventure in Wonderland" "11","4","1865","Abraham Lincoln shot by John Wilkes Booth and dies the next day. The first US President to be assassinated." "15","4","1865","Andrew Johnson 17th President of the USA. Vice president under Abraham Lincoln, he was sworn in as President upon Lincoln's death." "0","10","1865","Jamaican Morant Bay rebellion led by George William Gordon and Paul Bogle was brutally repressed and in its wake the island's Assembly renounced its authority and Jamaica became a Crown Colony." "0","0","1866","Afghan camel trains introduced to provide transport services in dry areas of central Australia" "0","0","1866","Alfred Nobel patented dynamite" "0","0","1866","J. Osterhoudt patents the tin can with a key opener." "0","0","1867","First use of refrigerated railway cars allows long-distance transport of perishables such as meat and dairy." "0","0","1867","First independent dominion in the British Empire under the British North America Act 1867 (known as the Constitution Act in Canada)" "16","3","1867","Joseph Lister (hence ""listerine""), using carbolic acid as antiseptic and sterilizing his instrument, proved the efficacy of antiseptic surgery" "0","0","1868","J P Knight invents traffic lights." "10","1","1868","Last convict shipment arrived in Western Australia. In all, about 164,000 convicts were transported to the Australian colonies between 1788 and 1868." "4","3","1869","General Ulysses Grant 18th President of the USA." "17","11","1869","The Suez Canal is opened" "0","0","1870","Pyjamas as sleepwear for men adopted" "0","0","1870","Primary education becomes compulsory in Britain through the Forster-Ripon English Elementary Education Act (but poor children still roam streets after school). The Act means labourers, spouses and children of succeeding generations can read and write; women permitted to sit on school boards" "0","0","1870","UK Parliament passes the Married Women's Property Act, extending the rights of married women, and the Landlord and Tenant (Ireland) Act" "0","0","1870","Volume of Britain's external trade equals France, Germany and Italy combined, 3-4 times greater than US; agricultural wages reach height not surpassed for many years" "0","0","1872","Overland telegraph between Adelaide and Darwin provides first direct news cable between London and Sydney" "0","0","1872","Secret ballot is introduced for UK elections" "0","0","1873","World-wide economic depression lasts until 1896" "0","0","1876","Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone." "0","0","1876","Nicolaus Otto designed the first four-stroke piston engine" "1","5","1876","Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India." "0","0","1877","First Australia-England cricket match, at the Melbourne Cricket Ground" "0","0","1877","Britain annexed the Transvaal in South Africa settled by Boers, viewed as an act of aggression from the Boers. This would eventially lead to the First Boer War (1880-81)." "0","0","1877","Thomas Edison invents the cylinder or tin foil phonograph." "4","3","1877","Rutherford B. Hayes 19th President of the USA." "0","0","1878","First Australian telephone line, in Melbourne VIC" "0","0","1880","The British Perforated Paper Company invents a form of toilet paper." "11","11","1880","Bushranger Ned Kelly executed in Melbourne VIC" "16","12","1880","First Boer War when Britain attempts to annex Transvaal." "0","0","1881","First Australia-wide census revealed a population of 2,250,194" "0","0","1881","Alexander Graham Bell invents the first crude metal detector." "0","0","1881","Edward Leveaux patents the automatic player piano or pianola." "4","3","1881","James Garfield 20th President of the USA. Garfield was wounded by an assassin's bullet on 3 Jul 1881 and died 19 Sep 1881." "19","9","1881","Chester A. Arthur 21st President of the USA. Vice president under James Garfield, he is sworn in as president upon the death of Garfield." "0","0","1882","Refrigerated shipping becomes a commercial success when William Soltau Davidson fitted a compression refrigeration unit to the New Zealand vessel Dunedin in 1882, leading to a meat and dairy boom in Australasia and South America." "0","0","1882","Stillwell produces brown paper bag" "0","0","1882","Invention of the resistively heated electric iron by Henry W. Seeley of New York in 1882." "26","8","1883","Krakatoa (Indonesia) has one of the most catastrophic eruptions in history. Explosions are heard 2,200 miles (3,541 km) away and spewing ash reaches heights of 50 miles (80 km)." "0","0","1884","Apples first exported from Tasmania ""the apple isle""" "0","0","1884","Hilaire de Chardonnet invented the first artificial textile, which was made from cellulose. It was later named rayon" "0","0","1884","One-third of world's shipping is British, including 4/5 of world's steamships" "0","0","1884","Excess of births over deaths in England is 13.3, in Germany 10.8, and France 1.4." "0","0","1884","James Ritty invents the first working, mechanical cash register." "0","0","1884","Lewis Edson Waterman invents the first practical fountain pen." "0","10","1884","International Meridian Conference adopted a universal day of 24 hours beginning at Greenwich midnight, but specified that it ""shall not interfere with the use of local or standard time where desirable"". Nevertheless, most major countries had adopted hourly time zones by 1929." "0","0","1885","Karl Benz invents the first practical automobile to be powered by an internal combustion engine." "4","3","1885","Grover Cleveland 22nd President of the USA. He was also the 24th President." "24","3","1885","Hugh McKay patented the Sunshine Harvester that revolutionised the Australian wheat industry" "0","0","1886","South Africa - Gold is discovered in the Transvaal" "0","0","1886","John Pemberton develops Coca-Cola." "0","0","1886","Josephine Cochrane invents the dishwasher." "0","0","1886","3,992,880 migrants leave UK for US,
2,235,671 leave UK for British North America during period to 1927" "28","10","1886","Statue of Liberty dedicated" "0","0","1887","F.E. Muller and Adolph Fick invent the first wearable contact lenses." "0","0","1887","Emile Berliner patents the gramophone" "0","0","1888","George Eastman received a patent for his hand-held camera which used roll film. At this time he registered the trademark ""Kodak"" and the Kodak box camera was born!" "0","0","1888","John Boyd Dunlop patents a commercially successful pneumatic tyre." "0","0","1889","Joshua Pusey develops the matchbook." "4","3","1889","Benjamin Harrison 23rd President of the USA." "31","3","1889","The Eiffel Tower, designed by French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, is completed for the Paris Exposition." "0","0","1890","Starting this decade, women's clothing becomes less voluminous, lawn tennis takes place of croquet as means of meeting opposite sex, bicycle becomes fashionable.
Items considered luxuries in the UK in 1837 are now common comforts; food, clothing, bedding, furniture are all far more abundant; gas and oil lighting being replaced by electricity; seaside holidays (vacations) no longer rare " "0","0","1891","William Gray's coin-operated public telephone is produced" "0","0","1891","Jesse W. Reno develops the escalator." "0","3","1891","Trans-Siberian Railway opened by Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovitch. It runs from Moscow to Vladivostok - 9,288 kilometres (5,772 miles), spanning 8 time zones and taking about 7 days." "0","0","1892","Sir James Dewar invents the Dewar flask or vacuum flask." "0","0","1892","Rudolf Diesel invents the diesel-fueled internal combustion engine." "0","0","1893","New Zealand is the first nation to grant women the right to vote, though states in Australia and the USA had already done so - see Timeline of women's suffrage" "0","0","1893","Whitcomb L. Judson invented the zip to help a friend with a stiff back who could not bend over to do up his shoes" "0","0","1893","Toasters for bread using electricity were invented by Crompton and Company, Leeds, England" "4","3","1893","Grover Cleveland 24th President of the USA. His second (non-consecutive) term as President." "0","0","1895","Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, using a Crookes' tube, observed a new form of penetrating radiation, which he named X-rays" "0","0","1895","Guglielmo Marconi sent longwave wireless telegraphic, or radio, signals over a distance of more than a mile" "0","0","1895","Lumiere Brothers invent a portable motion-picture camera, film processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe." "25","6","1895","Kellogg's Corn Flakes go on sale" "0","0","1896","Toothpaste in a tube produced" "0","0","1896","Ebenezer Howard publishes Garden Cities of Tomorrow, forerunner of modern urban planning" "6","4","1896","First modern Olympic Games, in Athens" "4","3","1897","William McKinley 25th President of the USA. William McKinley dies in Buffalo, NY, 1901." "0","0","1898","Christopher Latham Sholes patented the typewriter. His QWERTY keyboard is still with us today." "0","0","1899","In the UK education is now compulsory to age 12. 1 in 8 receives education after age 14" "0","7","1899","Friedrich Bayer & Co. market Aspirin " "11","10","1899","Second Boer War, sparked when Englishman dies in Boer police custody. Scandalous British concentration camps cause many deaths of woman and children" "2","11","1899","Chinese Boxer Rebellion" "0","0","1900","Max Planck proposes quantum mechanics" "0","0","1900","Urban use of horses peaks. In London about a million tons of horse manure are removed from the city streets yearly." "0","0","1900","Sigmund Freud Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams" "0","0","1900","The zeppelin airship invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin." "27","2","1900","British Labour Party formed" "0","0","1901","King Camp Gillette invents the double-edged safety razor." "0","0","1901","Guglielmo Marconi sends wireless message from Cornwall, UK, to Newfoundland, Canada, a distance of over 2,000 miles (3220 km)" "0","0","1901","Satori Kato, a Japanese scientist working in Chicago, invents Instant coffee." "0","0","1901","Vacuum Cleaner invented by Hubert Cecil Booth" "0","0","1901","First Nobel Prizes awarded" "1","1","1901","Commonwealth of Australia formed from the six colonies Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia" "22","1","1901","Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom etc. to 1910. House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Eldest son of Queen Victoria (who had reigned for 63 years), married Alexandra, Princess of Denmark." "14","9","1901","Theodore Roosevelt 26th President of the US 1901-1909. Vice president under William McKinley, he is sworn in as President upon death of McKinley." "0","0","1902","Willis H. Carrier invented the industrial air conditioner" "0","0","1902","Advent of the Teddy Bear. The name Teddy Bear comes from one of Theodore (""Teddy"") Roosevelt's hunting trips, when he refused to shoot a bear cub." "0","0","1902","French physicist Georges Claude was the first to apply an electrical discharge to a sealed tube of neon gas to produce a lamp." "0","0","1903","First silent films, Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery. A standard film was one reel or 10-15 minutes long." "0","0","1903","Louis Blériot flies across the English Channel" "0","0","1903","Bottle making machinery perfected by Michael J. Owens - See Owens-Illinois." "0","11","1903","Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers." "17","12","1903","Orville and Wilbur Wright achieved flight in a manned, gasoline power-driven, heavier-than-air flying machine at Kitty Hawk NC." "0","0","1904","Ice cream cone devised" "0","0","1904","First telephone answering machine" "0","0","1904","Teabags invented by Thomas Suillivan." "8","7","1904","Sydney's electricity supply officially switched on" "0","0","1905","Albert Einstein evolved the theory of relativity in On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies." "0","0","1905","Sigmund Freud publishes his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" "0","0","1906","World's first feature film The Story of the Kelly Gang was produced in Australia - an unprecedented 70 minutes long (of which only 17 minutes has survived)." "18","4","1906","San Francisco Earthquake - about 3,000 killed, between 225,000 and 300,000 were left homeless out of a population of about 410,000" "3","11","1906","SOS accepted as universal distress signal, and became effective 1 Jul 1908" "24","12","1906","First radio program broadcast (AM Radio)" "0","0","1907","The first piloted helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu." "10","7","1907","First telephone call between Sydney and Melbourne" "18","10","1907","Second Hague Peace Conference, with an increased focus on naval warfare. The Geneva Protocol, prohibiting the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare, is an addition to the Convention." "0","0","1908","Henry Ford created the Model T automobile" "0","0","1908","UK Old Age Pensions Act passed" "0","0","1908","William Beveridge commissioned to provide the government with a report that leads to the creation of Labour Exchanges from 1 Feb 1910 and unemployment benefits from 1911. He publishes Unemployment, a Problem of Industry in 1909." "4","3","1909","William Taft 27th President of the US 1909-1913." "6","4","1909","Robert Peary becomes the first person to reach the North Pole" "0","0","1910","Contributory National insurance scheme introduced by David Lloyd George, provides medical care, maternity benefits and sick pay in the UK" "0","0","1910","UK - Infant mortality now 110 per 1000 live births, declines steadily to 24.4 in 1956;
emigration reaches about 464,000/year;
divorces average 823/year, go to 3,619/year in 1920-1922, 7,955/year in 1939 (latter rise because willful desertion, cruelty and incurable insanity added to causes in 1937)" "0","0","1910","Mary Phelps Jacob develops the modern form of the bra by using two silk handkerchiefs together with some pink ribbon and cord." "6","5","1910","George V, ruler of England to 1936. House of Windsor (name adopted Jul 17, 1917): 2nd son of Edward VII, married Princess Mary of Teck." "31","5","1910","Formation of Union of South Africa. The previously separate colonies became Provinces - the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State." "0","0","1911","Australia introduces compulsory voting" "0","0","1911","Charles Franklin Kettering invents the all-electric starting, ignition, and lighting system for automobiles, first incorporated in the 1912 Cadillac." "10","10","1911","The Chinese Revolution" "14","12","1911","Norwegian Roald Amundsen reaches the South Pole" "15","4","1912","The sinking of the RMS Titanic on her maiden voyage: 1,515 people lose their lives." "0","0","1913","First assembly line introduced in Ford automobile factory" "0","0","1913","Leo Baekeland invented a plastic laminate, known as Bakelite, and later as Formica" "0","0","1913","Gideon Sundback invents the modern zipper." "4","3","1913","Woodrow Wilson 28th President of the US." "21","12","1913","Arthur Wynne, a Liverpool (UK) journalist, published a ""word-cross"" puzzle in the New York World that became known as a crossword puzzle." "4","8","1914","World War I, because Germany violates a treaty to respect neutrality of Belgium; Turkey enters war on Germany's side" "15","8","1914","Panama Canal, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, officially opened" "5","9","1914","Charlie Chaplin first appeared as the Little Tramp" "0","5","1915","Second Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany used poison gas on a large scale" "7","5","1915","RMS Lusitania sunk by German U-boat, killing 1198 of the 1959 people on board. . The sinking turned sentiments in neutral nations against Germany and helped provoke the United States into entering the war." "0","0","1916","Battle of the Somme - one of the largest battles of World War 1." "0","0","1916","Battle of Verdun - one of the most important battles in World War I on the Western Front" "0","0","1916","First self-service grocery store opens" "0","0","1916","Rustless steel, later to be called stainless steel, invented by Henry Brearly." "24","4","1916","Easter Rising - Irish Volunteers (later Irish Republican Army) proclaim Irish Republic" "25","4","1916","ANZAC Day first observed in Australia and New Zealand" "2","4","1917","The United States joined World War I on the side of the Triple Entente" "4","6","1917","First Pulitzer Prizes awarded, courtesy of a legacy provided by Hungarian migrant Joseph Pulitzer." "17","7","1917","King George V adopts Windsor as Royal family's English surname in place of family's German name" "25","10","1917","Bolshevik revolution installs a new government headed by Vladimir Lenin, first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic." "2","11","1917","Balfour Declaration promises Jews home in Palestine" "20","11","1917","First use of massed tanks (Battle of Cambrai)" "0","0","1918","Wrist watch gains in popularity" "0","0","1918","Spanish Flu epidemic caused 40 million deaths 1918-20. The close quarters and mass movement of troops quickened its spread." "0","0","1918","UK Representation of the People Act extended vote to men over 21 and women over 30 (complete voting equality with men comes in 1928)" "17","7","1918","Russian Czar Nicholas II and his family are executed by the Bolsheviks." "9","11","1918","Kaiser William II abdicates, peace signed two days later (11 Nov) at Treaty of Versailles, ending World War I
Final military casualties for World War I
killed 9,911,000
missing 7,750,000
wounded 21,219,500" "0","0","1919","The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified 16 Jan) and the Volstead Act (28 Oct) establish Prohibition in the USA" "1","12","1919","First woman in the British House of Commons, American born Nancy Astor" "0","0","1920","Growth in picture theatres/cinemas - by 1929, 3,000 cinemas in Britain
" "0","0","1920","The Band-Aid invented by Earle Dickson" "22","1","1920","Australian Country Party officially formed - became the National Country Party in 1975 and the National Party in 1982" "16","11","1920","QANTAS (Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services) established in Winton in western Queensland" "23","12","1920","New Government of Ireland Act proposes partition of Ireland into Northern and Southern Ireland, each to have its own government - even though Sinn Féin had won the majority of Irish seats in the 1918 election and declared the Irish Republic covering the whole of Ireland." "0","0","1921","Tuberculosis vaccine developed at the Pasteur Institute after 16 years work" "0","0","1921","John Larson, a University of California medical student, developed the modern lie detector (polygraph), used by police since 1924." "4","3","1921","Warren Harding 29th President of the US. He died of an embolism in San Francisco." "0","12","1921","Amateur radio operators are credited with the discovery of long distance shortwave communication in the shortwave bands when successful transatlantic tests were conducted." "0","0","1922","First QANTAS scheduled passenger flight from Charleville to Cloncurry in western Queensland" "11","1","1922","The first insulin injection administered - developed by Sir Frederick Grant Banting and his graduate student Charles Best" "5","2","1922","The Reader's Digest is first published" "3","4","1922","Joseph Stalin made General Secretary / First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union" "27","9","1922","The earliest confirmed 3-D film shown to a paying audience was The Power of Love, which premiered at the Ambassador Hotel Theater in Los Angeles - required spectacles with one red and one green lens." "18","10","1922","British Broadcasting Company (BBC) begins public radio transmission" "31","10","1922","Benito Mussolini is prime minister and dictator of Italy" "6","12","1922","Irish Free State established" "0","0","1923","Credit card introduced in USA by hotels, service stations" "0","0","1923","Radio broadcasts began in Australia" "0","0","1923","The word robot appears. May derive from Czech robota = compulsory labour" "0","0","1923","Kodak introduces home movie equipment using 16mm format, which becomes the non-professional standard" "0","0","1923"," John Harwood, a watch repairer from the Isle of Man, patents the self-winding wrist watch." "13","6","1923","Vegemite introduced to Australia and New Zealand" "2","8","1923","Calvin Coolidge 30th President of the US 1921-1929. Vice President under Warren Harding." "0","0","1924","Clarence Birdseye develops quick freezing of food products." "21","1","1924","Vladimir Ilich Lenin died at Gorki, near Moscow." "22","1","1924","First UK Labour government, headed by Ramsay MacDonald" "25","1","1924","First Olympic Winter Games at Chamonix, France" "0","0","1925","Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf" "2","10","1925","John Logie Baird successfully transmitted the first television picture in his laboratory." "0","0","1926","A.A. Milne publishes Winnie-the-Pooh, translated into many languages including Latin!" "0","0","1926","Imperial Conference sets stage for colonies and dominions to become independent sovereign states in the British Commonwealth of Nations" "0","0","1927","The Jazz Singer, a musical film, is the first feature-length motion picture with synchronized dialogue sequences." "0","0","1928","Rev John Flynn starts Aerial Medical Service (later the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia) at Cloncurry, in north-west Queensland" "0","0","1928","The Cavalier is the first Technicolor sound film - a Western." "0","0","1928","First edition of the Oxford English Dictionary published - the most successful dictionary of the English language" "0","0","1928","Penicillin developed by Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming, Australian Howard Florey and German-born British biochemist Ernst Boris Chain." "15","5","1928","Mickey Mouse's first appearance in Plane Crazy" "31","5","1928","Charles Kingsford Smith in the Southern Cross flies across the Pacific Ocean from Oakland, California to Brisbane, Queensland in 8 days" "25","9","1928","A car radio named ""Motorola"" is produced by Galvin Manufacturing Corporation, which eventually changed its name to Motorola." "0","0","1929","Pedal wireless developed by the Australian Inland Mission for communication in remote communities" "0","0","1929","Frank Whittle designed a turbo-jet. Independently, Hans von Ohain put together the same combination in 1935" "4","3","1929","Herbert Hoover 31st President of the US 1929-1933." "24","10","1929","Black Thursday marks the start of the Wall Street stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange. This is generally accepted as marking the start of the worldwide Great Depression that lasted until 1932." "0","0","1930","World population passes two billion." "0","0","1930","""Scotch tape"" patented by 3M engineer Richard G. Drew." "12","3","1930","Mahatma Gandhi begins the Salt Satyagraha or Salt March, an act of non-violent protest against the British salt tax." "1","5","1931","The Empire State Building, the world's tallest building for over 40 years, opened in New York" "9","3","1932","Éamon de Valera is first President of the Executive Council (Prime Minister) of Irish Free State, ousts the British Governor-General, abolishes senate, alters law re citizenship to distinguish Irish nationality from British, but still claims Commonwealth membership. He is then (29 Dec 1937) Taoiseach, then after a seventeen month break (19 Feb 1948-25 Jun 1973), President of Ireland." "19","3","1932","The Sydney Harbour Bridge opened, having been under construction from 1923." "1","7","1932","The Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) founded" "30","1","1933","Adolf Hitler is first Chancellor, then on 2 Aug 1934, Führer and Chancellor of Germany." "4","3","1933","Franklin Roosevelt 32nd President of the US." "0","0","1934","Regular airmail services between Australia and England begin" "0","0","1934","Konrad Zuse built a series of computers, Z1 through Z4, utilizing binary arithmetic and stored programs. Along the way he invented the first programming language and began to analyze methods by which a computer could play chess." "0","0","1934","Introduction of the modern comic book format with Famous Funnies" "0","0","1934","S. Joseph Begun produces the first tape recorder for broadcasting - first magnetic recording." "0","0","1935","The first canned beer." "0","0","1935","First successful three-color roll film available to amateur photographers as Kodachrome. Kodacolor for prints appears in 1942." "0","0","1935","Parker Brothers produces the board game Monopoly - the game can be traced back to the early 1900s." "0","0","1935","John Maynard Keynes suggests new economic theory known as Keynesian economics." "28","2","1935","Wallace Carothers at DuPont Labs produces a thermoplastic material that is named nylon" "20","1","1936","Edward VIII becomes King of Great Britain, etc.. House of Windsor: eldest son of George V. Abdicated amid public controversy in regard to his proposed marriage to a divorcee Mrs Wallis Simpson." "17","2","1936","The Phantom makes his first appearance in US newspapers" "1","8","1936","XI Olympiad: 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. (Decision was made in April, 1931 before the Nazi Party came to power.) Hitler saw the Olympics as a golden opportunity to promote Nazi ideology." "2","11","1936","BBC starts regularly scheduled television broadcasts" "11","12","1936","George VI King of Great Britain etc. House of Windsor: succeeded his brother Edward VIII. Married to Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (1900-2002)" "0","0","1937","The photocopier invented." "6","5","1937","Hindenburg airship crash - 36 people killed." "28","5","1937","Neville Chamberlain UK Prime Minister. He follows a policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany." "2","7","1937","Aviator Amelia Earhart disappears over central Pacific Ocean." "29","12","1937","Irish Free State becomes Republic of Ireland/Éire. (Northern Ireland remains part of the United Kingdom)" "0","0","1938","The ballpoint pen invented by László Bíró." "1","4","1938","Nescafé produces instant coffee." "0","6","1938","First Superman comic book produced" "0","9","1938","British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returns from the Munich Agreement and announces: ""My good friends, for the second time in our history a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time.""" "30","10","1938","Radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells about an invasion of Earth by Martians causes panic in the US." "9","11","1938","""Kristallnacht"" (The Night of Broken Glass): Jewish homes and shops ransacked, as German civilians and stormtroopers destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets covered in smashed windows. Jews were beaten to death; 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps; and 1,668 synagogues ransacked with 267 set on fire." "11","8","1939","Pan American World Airways begins first scheduled flights across the Atlantic, from New York, USA to Southampton, England." "1","9","1939","World War II - begins when Germany invades Poland. Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan vs. Major Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, and Russia." "14","9","1939","Igor Sikorsky develops the single-rotor Vought-Sikorsky helicopter.The VS-300 was not the first successful rotary-wing aircraft to fly, but it was the first of the single-rotor configuration that became the world standard." "0","0","1940","Nylon stockings marketed" "10","5","1940","Winston Churchill Prime Minister of the UK following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain " "22","5","1940","Dunkirk evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force." "10","7","1940","Battle of Britain - the name commonly given to the effort by the German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF) prior to a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain." "27","7","1940","A Wild Hare is released, introducing Bugs Bunny." "7","9","1940","London Blitz - sustained bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany" "6","5","1941","Joseph Stalin Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (referred to as Premier of the Soviet Union in English)" "8","9","1941","Siege of Leningrad is arguably the second most lethal battle in history - 1,500,000 killed, both military and civilian." "7","12","1941","Japanese attack Pearl Harbor draws the US officially into World War II." "0","0","1942","John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first automatic electronic digital computer, a special-purpose machine that has come to be called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer." "15","2","1942","Fall of Singapore to Japanese - 130,000 British prisoners of war including nearly 15,000 from Australia's 8th Division" "7","5","1942","Battle of the Coral Sea in the Pacific war was the first fleet action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other. It was also the first naval battle in history in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other. The Japanese abandoned their attempt to land troops to take Port Moresby, New Guinea." "0","0","1943","Willem Kolff developed the first functioning artificial kidney. In 1945 he was first able to save a patient's life with hemodialysis treatment." "6","6","1944","D-Day landings begin the Battle of Normandy" "12","4","1945","Harry Truman 33rd President of the US." "8","5","1945","Victory in Europe (VE) Day - Germany surrenders" "6","8","1945","Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and, three days later, Nagasaki, effectively ending World War II" "15","8","1945","World War 2 - VP (Victory in the Pacific) Day" "24","10","1945","United Nations Organisation founded" "0","0","1946","First synthetic laundry detergent" "0","0","1946","The microwave oven invented." "0","0","1946","Dead Sea scrolls (972 documents), of great religious and historical significance, discovered over ten years in caves near Qumran" "5","7","1946","The modern bikini was introduced by French engineer(!) Louis Réard and fashion designer Jacques Heim at a fashion show at Piscine Molitor in Paris." "20","10","1946","Nuremburg war crime trials" "0","0","1948","First Australian designed and manufactured car - the Holden" "0","0","1948","After World War II, Australia launched a massive immigration program, believing that Australia must ""populate or perish."" Hundreds of thousands of displaced Europeans migrated to Australia and over 1,000,000 British Citizens immigrated under the Assisted Migration Scheme, colloquially becoming known as Ten Pound Poms." "30","1","1948","Mahatma Gandhi assassinated in India" "14","5","1948","State of Israel proclaimed" "0","0","1949","George Orwell publishes Nineteen Eighty-Four which tells the story of Winston Smith and his degradation by the totalitarian state in which he lives." "0","0","1949","Lego inter-locking toy bricks first introduced" "0","0","1950","Australia commits troops to the Malayan emergency " "0","0","1950","First modern credit card (Diners Club) introduced in the US" "0","0","1950","US Senator Joseph McCarthy begins anti-communist crusade which was referred to as ""McCarthyism"" " "25","6","1950","Korean War: United Nations force from 16 countries and South Korea vs. North Korea and China. Nominal Roll of Australian Veterans of the Korean War website" "2","10","1950","""Peanuts"" cartoon produced through to 13 Feb 2000 " "0","0","1951","Chrysler Corporation introduced the first commercially available power steering system on the Chrysler Imperial under the name Hydraguide. Power steering had been invented in the 1920s by Francis W. Davis and George Jessup. " "1","9","1951","Australia, New Zealand and the US sign the ANZUS Treaty military alliance " "26","10","1951","Winston Churchill is again UK Prime Minister" "0","0","1952","Polio vaccine first tested by Jonas Salk " "6","2","1952","Death of King George VI. His elder daughter Elizabeth becomes Elizabeth II, Queen of of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth " "25","11","1952","""The Mousetrap"" opened in London. It is the world's longest-running play. " "0","0","1953","Irish dramatist Samuel Beckett's ""Waiting for Godot"" debuts in Paris " "0","0","1953","University of Cambridge researchers James D. Watson and Francis Crick suggested what is now accepted as the first accurate model of DNA structure " "0","0","1953","What was probably the first transistorized portable radio exhibited at the Düsseldorf Radio fair." "20","1","1953","Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes 34th President of the United States" "5","3","1953","Joseph Stalin dies " "29","5","1953","Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay are the first to reach the summit of Mount Everest " "0","0","1954","Smoking and lung cancer related according to the British Doctors Study, confirming the research of Dr Richard Doll some four years earlier." "0","0","1954","Queen Elizabeth II is the first reigning monarch to visit New Zealand and Australia" "0","0","1954","The first kidney transplants are conducted in Boston and Paris" "21","1","1954","First nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus, launched" "12","4","1954","Bill Haley & His Comets record ""Rock Around the Clock""" "15","4","1954","Raymond Kroc buys McDonald's franchise and begins the global proliferation of the golden arches - within 50 years there would be almost 32 000 world-wide" "6","5","1954","Roger Bannister breaks the four-minute mile" "6","6","1954","J.R.R. Tolkien's ""The Lord of the Rings"" first published" "6","9","1954","The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) treaty is signed in Manila, Philippines. The Organization is established in Bangkok, Thailand." "0","0","1955","Glass clad optic fibre developed." "17","7","1955","Disneyland opens in Anaheim, California" "1","12","1955","Civil rights activist Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus, and provokes one of the largest movements against racial segregation" "0","0","1956","The first video cassette recorder (VCR) is marketed by Ampex. At US$50,000 it could only be afforded by broadcasters. (Popular VCRs appeared in 1963.)" "0","0","1956","Robert Adler develops the TV remote control" "16","9","1956","TV transmission in Australia begins on TCN9 Sydney" "29","10","1956","Suez Crisis - Britain, Israel and France invade Egypt following Egypt's decision to nationalise the Suez canal." "22","11","1956","XVI Olympiad: Summer Games, Melbourne, Victoria" "0","0","1957","Dr. Seuss publishes The Cat in the Hat" "12","3","1957","European Economic Community established - ""economic"" was dropped from the title in 1992." "4","10","1957","The Space Age begins with the launch of the Russian Sputnik 1 - the first satellite" "0","0","1958","Qantas introduces first round-the-world service" "0","0","1958","Unimate is first industrial robot" "0","0","1959","The implantable cardiac pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch." "0","0","1959","Vietnam War - begins. Also known as the Second Indo-China War or the Vietnam Conflict. Ends 30 Apr 1975." "16","2","1959","Fidel Castro becomes Prime Minister of Cuba until 19 Apr 2011" "9","3","1959","Barbie doll produced." "0","0","1960","USA - Xerox produces the plain paper photocopier" "0","0","1960","Oral contraceptive developed" "0","0","1960","World population reaches three billion." "16","6","1960","Alfred Hitchcock's suspense film Psycho released" "9","12","1960","Launch of award winning British soap opera Coronation Street" "0","0","1961","Pantyhose introduced" "20","1","1961","John F. Kennedy 35th President of the US 1961-1963." "12","4","1961","Russian Yuri Gagarin is the first human in space" "31","8","1961","Construction of the Berlin Wall, known in East Berlin as the Anti-Fascist Protective Rampart. It was dismantled in 1989." "31","10","1961","The Beatles record My Bonnie in Germany which leads to Brian Epstein becoming their manager and is the beginning of their popularity." "0","0","1962","Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States and Russia that went closest to starting a nuclear war." "0","0","1962","Dow Corning invents silicone gel breast implants. First implant made in 1962." "5","8","1962","Marilyn Monroe dies of an overdose of sleeping pills." "6","8","1962","Jamaica gains independence, remaining a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The first prime minister is Alexander Bustamante of the Jamaica Labour Party." "11","10","1962","Second Vatican Council opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965" "0","0","1963","The audio cassette introduced and eventually dominates the popular magnetic tape market." "0","0","1963","Betty Friedan publishes The Feminine Mystique ignites the contemporary women's movement" "28","8","1963","Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his I Have a Dream speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom." "22","11","1963","US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, TX, by Lee Harvey Oswald" "22","11","1963","Lyndon B. Johnson 36th President of the US 1963-1969. Vice president under John F. Kennedy, he is sworn in as President aboard Air Force One upon the death of Kennedy." "12","6","1964","Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison. Charges included involvement in planning armed action, in particular four charges of sabotage, which Mandela admitted to, and a conspiracy to help other countries invade South Africa, which Mandela denied." "2","7","1964","Civil Rights Act outlaws segregation in US schools and public places, protects women in courts, and sets up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission." "0","0","1965","The mini-skirt introduced" "0","0","1965","Australia commits troops to the Vietnam war 1965-72" "0","0","1965","Soft contact lenses invented." "0","0","1966","IBM produces the word processor (not to be confused with a personal computer)." "14","2","1966","Australia changes to decimal currency - one pound becomes two dollars, one dollar has 100 cents (equal to the previous 120 pence or 10 shillings)" "8","9","1966","The Star Trek TV series debuts" "21","10","1966","In Wales a slag heap slip (""the Aberfan disaster"") kills 144, including 116 children aged between 7 and 10." "7","2","1967","Bushfires kill 62 and destroy 1,400 buildings in Hobart, Tasmania on what became known as Black Tuesday" "27","5","1967","Australian Aboriginal citizenship endorsed by referendum" "27","6","1967","The first Auromated Teller Machine (ATM) installed at Barclays Bank in Enfield, London and came into wide use in the early 1970s." "1","7","1967","The first colour television broadcasts begin on BBC2 in UK for certain programmes. A full-colour service begins on BBC2 on 2nd December." "0","0","1968","The first operational liquid-crystal display (LCD) introduced by RCA." "16","3","1968","My Lai massacre of 347 Vietnamese villagers by US troops led by 2Lt William Calley" "4","4","1968","Martin Luther King Jr assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee." "5","6","1968","Robert F. Kennedy assassinated after a major victory in the Californian primary in his campaign to be the U.S. Democrat presidential candidate. (He died the following day.)" "0","0","1969","ARPANET, the precursor of the internet, is created" "0","0","1969","The bar-code scanner is invented." "20","1","1969","Richard Nixon 37th President of the US 1969-1974." "20","7","1969","Apollo 11 lands the first humans on the Moon - Neil Armstrong and 'Buzz' Aldrin" "15","8","1969","Woodstock Festival exemplified the counterculture of the 1960s and the ""hippie era.""" "0","0","1970","Intel builds the first microprocessor, 'a computer on a chip'" "0","0","1970","Philips develops a home videocassette format." "5","3","1970","The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty goes into effect, after ratification by 43 nations." "25","3","1970","The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight at 1127 km/h (700 mph)." "10","4","1970","Paul McCartney announces the Beatles break up following a period of disintegration and solo interests after manager Brian Epstein's death on 27 Aug 1967." "4","5","1970","Four students are killed and 9 wounded at Kent State University by Ohio State National Guardsmen at a protest against the incursion into Cambodia." "26","8","1970","The Isle of Wight Festival 1970 takes place on East Afton Farm off the coast of England. Some 600,000 people attend the largest rock festival of all time." "15","10","1970","A section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne, Australia, collapses into the river below, killing 35 construction workers." "9","11","1970","Charles de Gaulle dies; he is buried 13 November." "0","0","1971","World population passes four billion." "0","0","1971","The dot matrix printer invented using 80 column 5x7 dot characters." "15","2","1971","The English pound (""sterling"") converted to decimal currency - the pound now has 100 pence instead of 240." "0","0","1972","The domestic food processor (Magimix) produced." "0","0","1972","M*A*S*H television series premieres two years after the movie" "17","6","1972","The Watergate break-in at Democratic Party offices that will eventually bring about the resignation of the President of the US." "26","8","1972","XX Olympiad: Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. They are marred by the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists (""Black September"")" "0","0","1973","Australia's voting age lowered to 18" "20","10","1973","The Sydney Opera House opens" "0","0","1974","China's Terracotta Army discovered" "8","8","1974","US President Nixon announces his resignation as a result of the Watergate scandal" "9","8","1974","Gerald Ford 38th President of the US 1974-1977, the only person to hold the office without having been elected Vice President or President." "24","12","1974","Cyclone Tracy demolishes Darwin, NT. 71 people were killed and 30,000 people had to be evaculated. Almost all buildings were damaged or destroyed." "0","0","1975","UK Equal Pay Act 1970 and Sex Discrimination Act 1975 come into force. They prevent discrimination on the basis of gender." "4","4","1975","Bill Gates founds Microsoft in Albuquerque, New Mexico" "30","4","1975","Vietnam War - The fall of Saigon and the end of the war" "1","4","1976","Apple computer company founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne." "20","7","1976","NASA's Viking 1 Lander lands on Mars" "28","7","1976","Tangshan (China) earthquake kills over 240,000, possibly as high as 750,000" "20","1","1977","James Earl Carter 39th President of the US 1977-1981." "16","4","1977","Apple produces the first mass-produced personal computer - the Apple II" "25","5","1977","The first Star Wars film released" "22","6","1977","The Uniting Church in Australia formed from Congregational, Methodist and Presbyterian churches - UCA web site" "0","8","1977","Canon engineer Ichiro Endo develops the thermal inkjet printer." "16","8","1977","Elvis Presley found dead on the floor of his bathroom at ""Graceland""." "0","0","1978","Australia's Northern Territory granted self-government" "25","7","1978","World's first 'test tube baby', Louise Browne, is born as a result of the develolment of in vitro fertilisation for humans by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards" "16","10","1978","Karol Józef Wojty?a, elected the 264th pope and chooses the title Pope John Paul II. He is the first non-Italian pope for 450 years" "0","0","1979","The first commercial mobile/cell phone network was launched by NTT in Japan." "28","3","1979","Worst accident in US nuclear power generating history at Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station" "4","5","1979","Margaret Thatcher UK Prime Minister to 28 Nov 1990 (Conservative)" "1","7","1979","Sony introduces the Walkman" "0","0","1980","Rubik's Cube, originally invented in 1974, marketed successfully by Ideal Toys" "18","5","1980","Mount St. Helens, WA, USA erupts. Fifty-seven people are killed and there is extensive damage to homes and infrastructure." "17","8","1980","Lindy Chamberlain raised the alarm that a dingo had just taken her 9 week old baby Azaria at Uluru in central Australia - creating extraordinarily intense international media interest" "8","12","1980","John Lennon assassinated in New York" "20","1","1981","Ronald Reagan 40th President of the US 1981-1989." "5","6","1981","Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) identified - it has killed an estimated 25 million people." "29","7","1981","Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer in St Paul's Cathedral, London" "12","8","1981","IBM enters the personal computer market using the term ""PC""." "19","3","1982","Argentina invades British occupied Falkland Islands precipitating a three month long Falklands War." "0","0","1983","The CD-ROM (""Compact Disc read-only memory"") developed." "24","1","1984","Apple introduces the Macintosh computer." "3","12","1984","Indian Bhopal disaster - Huge poison gas leak from Union Carbide chemical plant causing up to 22,000 deaths." "0","0","1985","Microsoft introduces MS-DOS (short for MicroSoft Disk Operating System) for IBM PC compatible computers." "0","0","1985","Hole in the ozone Layer over Antarctica reported." "0","0","1985","Sir Alec Jeffreys develops genetic or DNA fingerprinting to distinguish between individuals." "0","11","1985","Microsoft Windows operating system version 1.0 released." "0","0","1986","Elizabeth II signed the Australia Act cutting the last constitutional ties with Britain apart from sharing the same monarch" "0","0","1986","World population passes five billion." "0","0","1986","Fuji introduced the disposable camera." "28","1","1986","Seven crew members killed in Space Shuttle Challenger disaster" "19","2","1986","Russian Mir space station launched. It was deliberately de-orbited on 23 Mar 2001." "26","2","1986","People Power succeed in forcing Phillipines President Ferdinand Marcos to flee in the face of wide-spread objection to massive government corruption, despotism, nepotism, political repression and human rights violations." "26","4","1986","Chernobyl nuclear accident. Large areas of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated, resulting in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people." "11","6","1987","Margaret Thatcher wins third consecutive term as UK Prime Minister - the second person to do so since Robert Jenkins (in office 1812-27) and subsequently equalled by Tony Blair (1997-2007)" "21","12","1988","Pan Am Flight 103 explodes as the result of bombs on board over Lockerbie (Scotland), scattering debris and 270 passengers along 130 km (81 mile) corridor. Eleven people from Lockerbie were also killed." "20","1","1989","George H.W. Bush 41st President of the US 1989-1993." "24","3","1989","Exxon Valdez oil spill results in 10.8 million gallons of oil dispersing into Prince William Sound (Alaska) and along the coastline." "3","6","1989","3,000-5,000 students killed during Tiananmen Square protest in Beijing." "9","11","1989","The Berlin Wall demolished over several weeks." "0","0","1990","Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) following Iraq invasion of Kuwait" "0","0","1990","The World Wide Web/Internet protocol (HTTP) and WWW language (HTML) created by Tim Berners-Lee." "0","0","1990","Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa between the governing National Party, the African National Congress, and a wide variety of other political organisations." "11","2","1990","Leading anti-apartheid campaigner Nelson Mandela freed from prison in South Africa after 27 years" "20","4","1990","Hubble Space Telescope launched Into orbit around the earth to by-pass the earth's atmosphere." "28","11","1990","Margaret Thatcher ousted by an internal party ballot and resigns as UK Prime Minister. John Major Prime Minister to 1997 (Conservative)" "17","6","1991","South African apartheid ends when Parliament repeals the Population Registration Act." "21","12","1991","The dismemberment and consequent extinction of the fifteen member Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" "1","4","1992","War in Bosnia and Herzegovina involved international Peace-keeping Forces from 1995-1996. Soldiers killed 31270, civilians 32723." "20","1","1993","William J. Clinton 42nd President of the US 1993-2001." "26","2","1993","Bombing of the World Trade Center in New York (not to be confused with ""9/11"") failed to bring down the twin towers but killed six and injured 1042." "31","1","1994","Australian citizenship requires Pledge to Australia instead of Oath to the Queen of Australia." "6","4","1994","Rwandan genocide. At least 500.000 Tutsis and thousands of moderate Hutus die." "6","5","1994","The Channel Tunnel opens, connecting Britain and France by a 50.5 kilometre underwater rail services for people, freight and vehicles." "10","5","1994","Nelson Mandela, the first post-apartheid President of South Africa. He spent 27 years (1962-early 1980) in jail for fighting apartheid." "0","12","1995","DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) developed." "5","7","1996","The first mammal to be cloned - an adult sheep named Dolly. She had six lambs including twins and triplets." "28","8","1996","Divorce of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales." "2","5","1997","Tony Blair becomes UK Prime Minister when Labour routs the Tories in the general election. Resigned 27 Jun 2007." "30","6","1997","First of the Harry Potter novels, ""Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone"" (""Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone"" in the US), by J. K. Rowling, is published." "31","8","1997","Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in car crash in Paris. There are extraordinary international public expressions of grief." "0","0","1999","World population passes six billion." "1","1","1999","Euro (€) introduced as the currency of the Eurozone or Euro Area affecting 317 million people." "13","2","2000","Peanuts cartoon ends after 50 years of production" "15","9","2000","XXVII Olympiad. Summer Olympics, Sydney, Australia." "20","1","2001","George W. Bush 43rd President of the US." "25","2","2001","Death of ""The Don"", Sir Donald Bradman, iconic Australian cricketer. His batting average of 99.94 has never been seriously challenged." "24","3","2001","Apple releases Mac OS X operating system." "11","9","2001","""9/11"" attacks destroy the New York World Trade Center twin towers, crash into The Pentagon and a fourth flight crashes into a field in Pennsylvania due to action by passengers. Almost 3,000 people are killed." "19","10","2001","SIEV-X (Suspected Illegal Entry Vessel - unknown) sinks in international waters en route to Australian territory Christmas Island, killing 353 people, mostly women and children, and creating political controversy in Australia." "23","10","2001","Apple releases the iPod, aimed chiefly at the music market through its iTunes service. 300 million were sold over the next ten years." "15","11","2001","Microsoft releases the Xbox." "30","3","2002","The Queen Mother (UK) dies, aged 101. She had been Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 Dec 1936 to 6 Feb 1952." "12","10","2002","2002 Bali bombing killed 202 people including 89 Australian, 38 Indonesian and 26 British." "18","1","2003","Canberra (Australia) bushfires kill four and destroy 500 homes in the city's suburbs." "20","3","2003","Invasion of Iraq by Britain, United States, Australia, Poland and Denmark (other countries were also involved in its aftermath)" "14","4","2003","The Human Genome Project is successfully completed, with 99% of the human genome sequenced to 99.99% accuracy." "11","8","2003","Major General Michael Jeffery becomes Australia's 24th Governor-General after the resignation of Dr Peter Hollingworth due to public controversy over his handling of a child sex case while he was Anglican Archbishop of Brisbane." "1","2","2004","In Australia the Adelaide to Darwin north-south rail link is completed and The Ghan passenger train sets off on its 48 hour 2,979 km (1,851 miles) journey." "14","5","2004","Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark, marries Hobart woman Mary Donaldson in Copenhagen." "13","8","2004","XXVIII Summer Olympics held in Athens, Greece" "20","10","2004","Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono becomes the first directly-elected President of Indonesia." "26","12","2004","One of the worst natural disasters in recorded history when a massive 9.3 magnitude earthquake, epicentered just off the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, generates enormous tsunami waves that crash into the coastal areas of a number of nations including Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. The official death toll stands at 186,983 and 42,883 missing." "16","2","2005","The Kyoto Protocol aimed at fighting global warming goes into effect, without the support of the United States and Australia." "9","4","2005","Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles are married. Camilla assumes the titles Her Royal Highness and The Duchess of Cornwall." "19","4","2005","Pope Benedict XVI (Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger) succeeds Pope John Paul II, becoming the 265th Pope." "7","7","2005","Four explosions rock London's transport network, three on the London Underground and one on a bus; 56 people die and over 700 are injured." "29","8","2005","Hurricane Katrina causes severe damage along the U.S. Gulf Coast, flooding the coast 31 feet/10 m. At least 1,836 are killed." "11","12","2005","Cronulla racial riots, involving up to 5,000 youths, shock Sydney and Australia. Mobile text messages were used to inflame the situation." "20","3","2006","Tropical Cyclone Larry strikes Australia's Far North Queensland from Innisfail to Cairns. Despite hundreds of millions of dollars in damage and the devastation of 90% of Australia's banana production, no-one was killed." "29","6","2006","""Ten Canoes"", the first full-length feature film made entirely in an Australian Aboriginal language, is released" "24","6","2007","UK Labour Party elects Gordon Brown as Leader, succeeding incumbent Tony Blair. Brown becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 3 days later." "29","6","2007","Apple's iPhone is released and quickly dominates the mobile/cell phone market." "0","7","2007","Global financial crisis when a loss of confidence by investors in the value of securitized mortgages in the United States resulted in a liquidity crisis that prompted a substantial injection of capital into financial markets by the United States Federal Reserve, Bank of England and the European Central Bank, and affected economies world-wide." "21","7","2007","""Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows"", the final book of the Harry Potter series, is released and sells over 11 million copies in the first 24 hours, becoming the fastest selling book in history." "3","12","2007","Kevin Rudd elected Australia's 26th Prime Minister." "13","2","2008","Formal apology by Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd to the aboriginal ""stolen generations""." "22","4","2008","First operations using bionic eyes implanted into two blind patients by surgeons at London's Moorfields Eye Hospital." "8","8","2008","XXIX Summer Olympics take place in Beijing, China." "21","10","2008","The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is officially inaugurated. It is a collaboration of over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories." "20","1","2009","Barack Obama is the 44th, and first African-American, President of the United States. An estimated 1.8 million people attend the ceremony, surpassing the record of the 1965 inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson." "7","2","2009","Australia's deadliest bushfires kill over 173 people, injure 500 more, and leave 7,500 homeless. The fires come after Melbourne records the highest-ever temperature (46.4° C, 115° F) of any capital city in Australia. Both arson and global warming are suspected causes." "0","4","2010","Apple Computer releases the iPad - 3 million were sold in 80 days." "14","4","2010","Volcanic ash from one of several eruptions beneath Eyjafjallajökull, an ice cap in Iceland, begins to disrupt air traffic across northern and western Europe." "24","6","2010","Julia Gillard becomes the 27th and first female Prime Minister of Australia following a leadership spill. She retains her position after a national election on 7 September but only with the support of three independent MPs." "17","10","2010","Mary MacKillop is canonised by Pope Benedict XVI, making her Australia's first Roman Catholic saint (Saint Mary of the Cross)." "0","12","2010","Massive floods in Queensland inundate three-quarters of the state affecting 70 towns including the capital Brisbane and its CBD and displacing 200,000 people. The floods affect communities down the Darling and Murray rivers for some months." "22","2","2011","Magnitude 6.3 earthquake devastates Christchurch, NZ" "11","3","2011","The Great East Japan Earthquake magnitude 9.0 produced a tsunami 38.9 metres high resulting in 15365 deaths, 8206 people missing and possibly US$300 million dollars damage - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Tōhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami" "19","4","2011","Fidel Castro steps down as Prime Minister of Cuba" "31","10","2011","World population reaches an estimated seven billion." "27","7","2012","XXX Summer Olympics held in London, UK" "13","3","2013","Jorge Mario Bergoglio elected as 266th Pope, taking the name Francis" "26","6","2013","Kevin Rudd becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the second time following a leadership spill." "18","9","2013","Tony Abbott becomes Australia's 28th Prime Minister" "15","9","2015","Malcolm Turnbull 29th Australian Prime Minister" "5","8","2016","XXXI Summer Olympics held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil" "21","1","2017","Donald Trump 45th President of the US" "24","8","2018","Scott Morrison 30th Australian Prime Minister " "0","0","866","While the Vikings had been raiding England for some time, a large army camped in East Anglia in 866 and began to conquer Mercia and Northumbria. They were stopped by Alfred of Wessex in 878 but the Vikings remained and settled into England."