genealogy of the Roy and Royes families
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Report: Timeline events

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# evday evmonth evyear evdetail
201 16  12  1653  Oliver Cromwell dissolves the 'Rump Parliament' and becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland 1653-58 
202 1654  James Ussher, Protestant archbishop of Armagh, determined by a close reading of scriptural genealogies that the events described on the first page of the Book of Genesis occurred in 4004 B.C. 
203 1655  British forces in the form of a joint expedition by Admiral Sir William Penn (father of the founder of Pennsylvania), and General Robert Venables seized Jamaica from Spain. 
204 1656  Christiaan Huygens built the first pendulum-regulated clock. Two years later, Huygens, in Horologium, claimed that his clock could establish longitude at sea which was not then possible and had led to many maritime disasters. 
205 1657  Stockings are manufactured in France. 
206 1658  Richard Cromwell, 2nd Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. Commonwealth & Proctorate: 3rd son of Oliver Cromwell
207 1659  First cheque drawn (London, England)  
208 29  1660  Charles II, ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1685. House of Stuart (restored): Eldest son of Charles I, died without issue. King of Scotland from 30 Jan 1649. 
209 1662  Robert Boyle, using a vacuum pump of his own invention, determined that the volume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional 
210 1662  John Graunt, in Observations upon the Bills of Mortality, using London population data, noted that life expectancy is 27 years, with nearly two thirds dying before 16 years. 
211 1662  Act of Uniformity required the use of all the rites and ceremonies in the Book of Common Prayer in Church of England services 
212 1665  Great Plague kills one fifth London's population 
213 1666  First European printed banknote issued 
214 1666  The Great Fire of London began in the shop of the King's baker. After burning for four days, more than 13,000 buildings had been destroyed. 
215 1667  The fork gains popularity - previously knives and spoons only 
216 1670  The Treaty of Madrid established English possession of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands 
217 1674  Anton van Leeuwenhoek reported his discovery of protozoa, using his newly-devised microscope 
218 1678  John Bunyan (1628-1688) publishes Pilgrim's Progress 
219 1679  Act of Habeas Corpus passed, forbidding imprisonment without trial; Parliament's Bill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliament dismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories 
220 1679  Denis Papin, a French physicist invented the pressure cooker, which he called Papin's Digester
221 1685  James II, ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1688. House of Stuart (restored): 2nd son of Charles I. Deposed 1688, interregnum Dec 11, 1688, to Feb 13, 1689. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
222 31  1685  Johann Sebastian Bach 
223 10  1685  Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV. Some 80,000 French Huguenot manufacturers and workmen fled to the British Isles, bring such industries as paper making, silk makers, tanners, furniture making, silver smithing. Note that our earliest known Royes ancestor was a silk weaver. 
224 1687  Isaac Newton publishes Principia Mathematica 
225 1688  England's 'Glorious Revolution'; William III of Orange is invited to save England from Roman Catholicism, lands in England, James II flees to France 
226 1689  English Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; Act of Toleration grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg, England, and the Netherlands 
227 13  1689  William III and Mary II, rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1702. House of Stuart (restored): Son of William, Prince of Orange, by Mary, daughter of Charles I. Mary eldest daughter of James II. She died 1694. 
228 1690  Philosopher John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding 
229 12  1690  Battle of the Boyne: James II defeated, flees into exile 
230 1692  Kingston established after the Jamaican capital Port Royal was destroyed in an earthquake. 
231 1694  Foundation of the Bank of England 
232 28  12  1694  Death of Queen Mary; she and King William were joint monarchs of England, Scotland and Ireland.  
233 1700  Population of England and Wales estimated at 5.5 million 
234 1700  Population of English colonies in America, 200,000 
235 1701  The Act of Settlement settles the English royal succession on the Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover. King William forms a grand alliance between England, Holland and Austria to prevent the union of the Spanish and French crowns. The War of the Spanish Succession breaks out in Europe over the vacant throne 
236 16  1701  Death of James II King of England, Scotland and Ireland in exile, King Louis of France recognises James's son as King James III 
237 1702  Queen Anne, ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland to 1707, then, after the Act of Union, of Great Britain and Ireland until 1714. House of Stuart (restored): 2nd daughter of James II. Died with no living heirs. 
238 28  1703  John Wesley, born Epworth, Lincolnshire, England, with brother Charles is founder of the Methodist movement. By 1784, 356 Methodist chapels built in places lacking church. 
239 1707  The Act of Union unites the kingdoms of England and Scotland and transfers the seat of Scottish Government to London. 
240 11  1708  Queen Anne vetoes a parliamentary bill to recognise the Scottish militia. This is the last time a bill is vetoed by the sovereign 
241 1709  Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit constructed an alcohol thermometer 
242 1710  The hoop skirt becomes fashionable 
243 1714  During period to 1742 England sees no big increases from population of about 5.5 million but the distribution changes: East Anglia loses; West Country, South and East Midlands, East Riding and North (except Tyneside) fairly static; West Riding and South Lancashire increase; West Midlands, Surrey and Middlesex grow rapidly with London (London 500,000, Bristol 50,000; Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield, Leeds, Halifax, Birmingham and Coventry, no longer sprawling villages, but still under 50,000); cause is immigration from cities and (in NW) from Ireland 
244 1714  George I, ruler of England to 1727. First Hanoverian to be king: Son of Elector of Hanover, by Sophia, grand-daughter of James I. Proclaimed King under Act of Settlement
245 1717  Edmond Halley invents the diving bell
246 1720  Dr Richard Mead publishes Short Discourse Concerning Pestilential Contagion, advocates quarantine, proposes establishment of government Council of Health; inoculation against smallpox introduced from Constantinople by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 
247 1720  Hospitals founded in London: Guy's, St. George's, London & Middlesex in period to 1745 
248 1721  Sir Robert Walpole returns to government as First Lord of the Treasury. He remains in office until 1742 and effectively becomes Britain's first Prime Minister 
249 16  1723  Sir Joshua Reynolds, arguably finest English landscape and portrait painter, career 1750-1780 
250 1724  Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the first mercury thermometer
251 1726  Jonathan Swift publishes his Gulliver's Travels 
252 1727  British provincial newspapers have increased from 8 in 1700 to 25 in 1727 
253 1727  The Gentleman's Magazine, first modern magazine, published 
254 11  1727  George II, ruler of England to 1760. House of Hanover: Only son of George I, married Caroline of Ansbach
255 1730  Famine strikes Ireland 
256 1730  In Great Britain in early part of 1700s, death rate had surpassed birth rate; begins to reverse; after 1780 death-rate plummets - due to replacement of gin-drinking with beer-drinking after taxes increased and retail sales curtailed on former in 1750; medical care improves, as does agriculture, more food available 
257 1736  John Harrison finished building and tested at sea what proved to be the first accurate chronometer for timing longitude 
258 1738  John and Charles Wesley start the Methodist movement in Britain 
259 1740  Industrial revolution leads to large growth of cities 
260 1740  Publication of the first novel, Samuel Richardson's Pamela 
261 1741  Further famine in Ireland, population about 4 million 
262 1742  The Compleat Housewife, or Accomplish'd Gentlewoman's Companion is the first cookbook published in Williamsburg, British North America 
263 27  1743  Battle of Dettingen - King George II is victorious. It was the last time that a British monarch, George II, personally led his troops into battle. 
264 1744  King George's War in North America: French Colonies vs Great Britain 1744-1748. 
265 21  1745  Jacobite Rebellion led by 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'. There is a Scottish victory at the Battle of Prestonpans. Prince Charles Edward (Bonnie Prince Charlie), son of James III, lands in Western Highlands of Scotland. Scots reach Derby; Charles_Edward_Stuart is inexplicably persuaded to turn back, loses initiative. 
266 16  1746  Battle of Culloden (Invernesshire), Scots defeated by Cumberland; fails to capture Charles who, after five months, escapes to France 
267 1750  Population of England and Wales estimated at 6.5 million 
268 1750  English countryside takes on today's familiar appearance as accelerated enclosure produces small fields surrounded by hedges, fences and walls 
269 1751  Benjamin Franklin published Experiments and Observations on Electricity after several years of experiments done with several friends. In this book Franklin suggested an experiment to prove that lightning is a large-scale electrical discharge, a task which later he took upon himself, using a kite. This led to the invention of the lightning rod
270 14  1752  Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in Britain. See also article in Support section of this site 
271 1753  British Parliament passes the Jewish Naturalization Bill 
272 25  10  1760  George III, ruler of England to 1820. House of Hanover: Grandson of George II, married Charlotte of Mecklenburg
273 1761  Robert Hinchliffe produced the first pair of modern-day scissors made of hardened and polished cast steel. [The earliest scissors were invented about 1500 B.C.] Hinchcliffe lived in Cheney Square, London and was reputed to be the first person who put out a signboard proclaiming himself "fine scissor manufacturer". 
274 1761  Various British municipalities secure Private Acts by which money can be raised ('rates') to pay for public improvements, such as paving and lighting in period to 1765 
275 1762  John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 'created' the sandwich. He was said to have been fond of gambling and, during a 24 hour gambling streak, he instructed a cook to prepare his food in such a way that it would not interfere with his game. The cook presented him with sliced meat between two pieces of toast. 
276 1768  James Cook's first voyage to explore the Pacific Ocean 
277 1769  James Watt patented a new type of steam engine with a separate condensing chamber and an air pump to bring steam into the chamber and equipped it with a simple 'governor' for safety: if the engine started to go too fast, the power would be automatically cut back. He coined the term horsepower and later loaned his name to the unit of power, or work done per unit of time 
278 19  1770  James Cook maps the east coast of Australia. From Possession Island at the northern tip of the east coast he claims the land for Britain. 
279 1771  The Encyclopedia Britannica is first published 
280 1772  Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Lord Mansfield, makes slavery illegal 
281 1773  The world's first cast-iron bridge is constructed over the River Severn at Coalbrookedale, England 
282 16  12  1773  American colonists protest at the East India Company's monopoly over tea exports to the colonies, at the so-called Boston Tea Party 
283 19  1775  American War of Independence, begins when colonists fight British troops at Lexington
284 1776  Adam Smith, in The Wealth of Nations, advanced the idea that businesses survive through successful trading in pursuit of their self-interest, and that the resulting equilibrium was not by design. 
285 1776  David Bushnell invents a submarine
286 1776  Edward Gibbon authors Decline and Fall of Roman Empire in period to 1788 
287 1776  The American Congress passes their Declaration of Independence from Britain. 
288 1783  The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques-Etienne, invented the first practical hot air balloon
289 1783  Benjamin Hanks patents the self-winding clock
290 19  12  1783  William Pitt the Younger, British Prime Minister. He simplifies taxes and customs duties, tries to pacify Ireland, abolish slave-trading and laws preventing Catholics holding office; returns Florida and Minorca to Spain and Senegal to France; Act of Renunciation gives Ireland rights in legislation and judication 
291 1784  First edition of The Times (London) newspaper 
292 1784  Introduction of mail coach in Britain 
293 1785  Benjamin Franklin develops bifocal eyeglasses
294 1785  Glasgow triples in size, has 54 cotton mills in full work during period to 1818 
295 1785  Oliver Evans of Newport, Delaware invented the automatic flour-milling machinery that revolutionized the industry.  
296 1787  First iron boat launched 
297 1788  Time to travel from London to Manchester reduced from 4.5 days to 28 hours 
298 23  1788  Captain Arthur Philip is first Governor of the colony of New South Wales 
299 26  1788  The First Fleet establishes the colony of New South Wales at Sydney Cove after first landing at Botany Bay eight days earlier. Between 1788 and 1850 the British sent over 162,000 convicts to Australia in 806 ships. 
300 1788  First Christian service in Australia at Sydney Cove 
301 1789  In Great Britain the French Revolution sounded the death knoll toward elaborate and affected dress and hairdos. The powdered wig and towering women's hair styles passed from fashion. Simpler, more practical clothes emerged. Boys wore the skeleton suit, often with a comfortable open collar, and by the end of the century with plebian long trousers. 
302 30  1789  George Washington first president of the United States 1789-1797. 
303 14  1789  French Revolution, Louis XVI, many aristocrats and others executed, France declares war on European monarchies 
304 1790  During the 1790s, New Zealand waters were visited by British, French, and American whaling and trading ships. Their crews traded European goods, including guns and metal tools, for Maori food, water, wood, flax and sex. 
305 1791  John Barber invents the gas turbine
306 1792  The first ambulance
307 1792  Alessandro Volta discovered he could arrange metals in a series in such a way that chemical energy is converted into electrical energy; that is, two dissimilar metals are submerged in an electrolyte and connected by an circuit and thereby exchange electrons. 
308 1792  Coal gas is used for lighting in Britain for the first time.  
309 1792  Mary Wollstonecraft publishes her Vindication of the Rights of Women 
310 1792  Edmund Cartwright invents steam-powered weaving loom 
311 1793  Britain becomes foremost world trader during period to 1815 
312 1793  Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin which efficiently separates cotton fibers from the seeds, allowing one person to do a job once done by 50 people. This profoundly changes the economics of raising cotton, revitalizing slavery in the American South. 
313 1794  In the colony of New South Wales, the Hawkesbury is settled at what is now known as Pitt Town, and Green Hills (Windsor) is established. John Macarthur establishes Elizabeth Farm in the Parramatta area. 
314 1794  Metric system introduced in France 
315 1795  Francois Appert invents the preserving jar for food. 
316 11  1795  Captain John Hunter appointed Governor to the colony of New South Wales (until 1800) with instructions to restore discipline to the colony 
317 1796  Edward Jenner investigated the folk tale that milk maids were immune to small pox, the virus variola major, and in a brief series of experiments confirmed that exposure to cow pox, the virus vaccinia, rendered immunity 
318 1796  French General Napoleon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte) invades Italy, drives Austrian armies out of Lombardy and defeats the army of the Papal States. 
319 1797  First merino sheep imported into Australia by John Macarthur, the Rev. Samuel Marsden and others 
320 1797  John Adams president of the USA 1797-1801. 
321 1798  Near-civil war between Protestants and Catholics in Ireland, erupts in 1798, takes nearly a year to suppress 
322 1798  Great Britain introduces an income tax of ten percent on incomes over £200. 
323 1798  Wordsworth and Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads 
324 1798  The first soft drink is invented. 
325 1799  A six year Black War in the Hawkesbury and Parramatta districts of the colony of New South Wales 
326 1799  Trade Unions are suppressed in Great Britain. 
327 1799  Alessandro Volta develops the battery
328 11  11  1799  Napoleon is appointed First Consul in France 
329 1800  Central heating for large buildings developed 
330 1800  Act of Union 1800 (sometimes cited as 1801) unites Parliaments of England and Ireland and the "United Kingdom" (UK) is born 
331 1800  English social reformer Robert Owen buys mills at New Lanark, and manages them on higher principles and focus and less on commercial principles 
332 1800  Over a ten year period, 30 acres of new docks are built in London, which becomes the greatest port in the world 
333 1800  Over the coming century, approx. 1 million people emigrate from Britain. 162,000 are prisoners transported to Australia (60,000 convicts had been transported to the American colonies prior to the War of Independence) 
334 28  1800  Captain Philip Gidley King, RN, third Governor of New South Wales 
335 1801  Governor King (NSW colony) introduced the 'ticket of leave' system for convicts. This early form of parole enabled convicts to work anywhere until they had served their term.  
336 1801  The first British Census is undertaken
Population of England and Wales now 10 million, Great Britain estimated at 11 million, biggest increases in North and West Midlands,
London now 1 million plus,
Manchester 137,201,
Glasgow and Edinburgh 100,000 plus,
England has 8 towns larger than 50,000, 6 of them in the North 
337 1801  Thomas Jefferson 3rd President 1801-1809. 
338 1802  Australia emerges as a major whaling base 
339 1803  Van Diemens Land (later known as Tasmania) settled at Risdon Cove on the Derwent River 
340 1803  Matthew Flinders completes his circumnavigation of the Australian continent and suggests the name 'Australia' 
341 18  1803  Napoleonic Wars. Britain declares war on France. 
342 1804  John Dalton establishes atomic theory 
343 1804  Richard Trevithick, an English mining engineer, developed the first steam-powered locomotive 
344 18  1804  Napoleon I, Emperor of France 
345 21  10  1805  Battle of Trafalgar, Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson trounces French and Spanish fleets for Britain, is mortally wounded 
346 1806  Cape Colony, South Africa, passes under British control 
347 13  1806  William Bligh appointed fourth Governor of New South Wales with a brief to clean up the corrupt rum trade of the NSW Corps
348 1807  First bale of wool sent from Australia to England. First commercial shipment of wool will be transported 6 Jul 1813 by John and Elizabeth Macarthur.  
349 1807  New Zealand Musket Wars were a series of battles fought between various tribal groups of Maori in the early 1800s, primarily on the North Island, occasioned by the acquisition of muskets in Maori trading with Europeans. 
350 1809  Sir Humphry Davy invents the first electric light - the first arc lamp 
351 1809  James Madison 4th President of the USA 
352 1810  Major General Lachlan Macquarie appointed Governor of New South Wales - The New South Wales Corps was disbanded and the leaders of the 'Rum Rebellion' sent to England 
353 23  1810  Governor Macquarie opened Australia's first post office in Sydney's Circular Quay. 
354 1811  Ned Ludd leads rioters who smash machinery, burn factories, followers known as Luddites 
355 1812  Napoleon attacks Russia, defeated 
356 1812  Charles John Huffam Dickens, prolific and popular author 
357 11  1812  Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated in the House of Commons by a disgruntled bankrupt - the only assassination of a British Prime Minister 
358 18  1812  The War of 1812 (in Britain, the American War of 1812, to distinguish from the war with Napoleon) was fought between the United States of America, on one side, and on the other side the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its colonies, especially Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), Nova Scotia, and Bermuda. 1812-1815 
359 1813  The Blue Mountains (west of Sydney) crossed by Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson 
360 1813  Canned food was invented for the Royal Navy by Peter Durand. The cans were made of solid iron and usually weighed more than the food inside them 
361 1813  2,300 power looms in use in Britain, by 1833 - 100,000 
362 28  1813  Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice is published 
363 1813  First commercial shipment of wool from Australia to England by John and Elizabeth Macarthur. 
364 1814  Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a photograph 
365 1814  Napoleon abdicates, exiled to Isle of Elba 
366 1814  George Stephenson designs a steam locomotive 
367 1815  UK trade:
(1) England has 2,600 miles (4,184 km) of canals, Scotland and Ireland 500 (805);
(2) China clippers take 109 days to sail 15,000 miles (24,000 km) from Canton to English Channel;
(3) imports 82 million pounds (37,000 metric tonnes) of raw cotton, by 1860 1,000 million pounds (450000);
(4) coal output 16 million tons (30 miillion by 1835, 50 million by 1848) 
368 1815  Britain's population estimated at 13 million 
369 1815  European settlement in New Zealand increased through the early decades of the nineteenth century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North. The first full-blooded European infant in the territory, Thomas King, was born in 1815 in the Bay of Islands. Many Europeans bought land from Maori, but misunderstanding and different concepts of land ownership led to conflict and bitterness. 
370 1815  Napoleon escapes Elba, leads French in war once more 
371 1815  Peace is established in Europe at the Congress of Vienna 
372 18  1815  Duke of Wellington trounces the French at Waterloo with timely help of Blucher (Prussia
373 1817  James Monroe 5th president of the USA (the fourth from Virginia) 
374 1818  Mary Shelley at age 19 publishes her Frankenstein 
375 1819  René Laennec invents the stethoscope 
376 1820  Trousers became standard dress for men in Europe 
377 1820  World population reaches one billion. 
378 1820  British Government finances scheme to send out 6,000 settlers to Cape in South Africa 
379 29  1820  George IV, becomes ruler of England to 1830. House of Hanover: Eldest son of George III, had been Prince Regent from Feb 1811 due to his father's insanity. Queen Caroline is excluded from the coronation - they had formally separated after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte, in 1796, and remained separated for the rest of their lives 
380 1821  Michael Faraday invents electric motor and generator 
381 12  1821  Sir Thomas Brisbane appointed Governor of New South Wales until 1825 
382 1822  Famine in Ireland prompts migration to US and Canada 
383 1823  A Legislative Council was established to advise the Governor of New South Wales - members were appointed 
384 1824  Professor Michael Faraday invents the first toy balloon 
385 1824  Englishman Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement, the modern building material 
386 1824  A penal colony was established at Moreton Bay, first at Redcliffe, then in 1825 the colony was moved 28 km south to what is now the location of Brisbane. Free settlers were permitted from 1842 
387 1825  The world's first railway service, the Stockton and Darlington Railway opens 
388 1825  British Trade Unions are legalized 
389 1825  Settlement of Canada, Australia and New Zealand begins in earnest over the next 25 years 
390 1825  John Quincy Adams 6th President of the USA 
391 14  1825  Van Diemans Land (later to be named Tasmania) becomes a separate colony from NSW 
392 19  12  1825  Lieutenant General Ralph Darling appointed Governor of New South Wales to 1831 
393 1826  Joseph Nicephore Niepce makes the earliest known photograph, View from a Window at Gras, via a heliograph process on a metal plate 
394 1827  John Walker invents the friction match 
395 1827  Charles Wheatstone invents the microphone 
396 1827  Alan Cunningham explored the Darling Downs (west of Brisbane) opening up a large area of pastoral country 
397 22  1828  The Duke of Wellington, British Prime Minister 
398 1829  Swan River Colony (Western Australia) established by Captain James Stirling 
399 1829  British Parliament passes the Catholic Relief Act, ending most restrictions on Catholic Civil Rights. They are allowed to own property and run for public office, including parliament 
400 1829  Sir Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police Force, constables become known as bobbies 

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